Deforestation dimitar d, simona, veselin

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Deforestation dimitar d, simona, veselin

  1. 1. Veselin Karadjov Dimitar Drumev Simona Zahova
  2. 2. What is it? <ul><li>Cutting down trees </li></ul><ul><li>Elimanating huge land </li></ul><ul><li>masses of woods and forests </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning/dearing of forests </li></ul><ul><li>May vary from a small </li></ul><ul><li>area to areas bigger than a country </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.all-creatures.org/hope/gw/amazon_deforestation.jpg </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ecological Impacts part 1 <ul><li>Selective logging – increases the flammability of the forest </li></ul><ul><li>Deforested land – turns into steep mountain hillsides – no roots, high rainfalls and slopes leads to landslides – kill people/land </li></ul><ul><li>Forests are “Earth’s lungs” – they produce O2, which is vital for most of the ogranisms </li></ul><ul><li>No CO2 absorbed – as trees grow they sequester carbon in the form of wood and other biomass, taking it from the atmosphere as CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 released as woods decomposes or is burned </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ecological Impacts Part 2 <ul><li>Loss of living space </li></ul><ul><li>Animals die – tropical forests – the greatest concentration of animal and plant species – 2/3 of the species on the planet – as deforestation proceeds it may cause the extinction of species </li></ul><ul><li>Trees and plants die </li></ul><ul><li>Rain forests help generate rainfall – no rainfall any more </li></ul><ul><li>Cause drought </li></ul>
  5. 5. Causes Part 1 <ul><li>Earth’s total croplands – 15 mil. Sq. km., 11 of which from deforested land </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical forests cut down: </li></ul><ul><li>Croplands – 2 millions square kilometers </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing – from 5 to 9 mil. Sq. Km. </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial logging </li></ul><ul><li>Plantations of rubber trees, oil palms, or other economically valuable trees </li></ul><ul><li>Production of paper </li></ul>
  6. 6. Causes Part 2 <ul><li>Temperate forests cut down: </li></ul><ul><li>Croplands – 9 millions square kilometers </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing – at least 2 mil. Sq. Km. only in Europe and North America </li></ul><ul><li>Slash-and-burn agriculture – small areas are cut down and then crops are grow, thanks to the fertilized soil by the ashes </li></ul><ul><li>Timber production </li></ul><ul><li>Wood used as fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Production of paper </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solution <ul><li>Sustainable forestry – way of management a forest that makes it inexhaustible of the resources humans need </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven age management – the cutting of the trees in a forest at different periods of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective cutting – very little of the trees are cut and at different periods of time so the life in the forest does not really change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelterbelt – many trees are cut and are left only those who could make a shelter from wind to provide a friendlier environment for new species </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Solution <ul><li>Even-age management – the cutting of the trees in a forest at the same time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear-cutting – cutting absolutely all trees allowing new species to realize their fundamental niches (due to the newly present lack of shadow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter-wood cutting – lowering the competition between the plants and offering a semi-shadowed environment which again allows new species to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed-tree cutting – cutting almost all trees and leaving just a few for reproduction; after they have reproduced, they are cut too </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Solution <ul><li>Tree Plantations – getting the timber humans need from artificially planted forests </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages – decrease n cutting natural forests + serving the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages – a lot of them need to be planted in order to make a difference and that will lead to the extinction of a lot of species </li></ul><ul><li>Forest plantations in Brazil supplied 102.9 million m3 of timber in 2001 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Amazon Deforestation <ul><li>Biggest rainforest on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Causes : 1/3- subsistence agriculture and 2/3- other economic activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearing for cattle pasture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure construction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floods caused by hydroelectric projects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Amazon Deforestation <ul><li>1. Clearing for Cattle Pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>38% of the total deforestation in the Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in meat exports  Demand for more land </li></ul><ul><li>2. Subsistence agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Poor farmers are encouraged to settle there by gov’t policies </li></ul><ul><li>Use fire to clear the forest </li></ul>
  12. 12. Amazon Deforestation <ul><li>3. Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Roads provide access to new logging and mining sites </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Amazonian Highway- rapid increase in deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Commercial Agriculture – soybean export </li></ul><ul><li>5. Logging </li></ul><ul><li>Only in designated areas, but there is illegal logging. </li></ul>
  13. 13. http://www.jabulela.com/files/media/Deforestation-Amazon.jpg
  14. 14. http://www.rechargenews.com/multimedia/archive/00027/amaz2_27672a.JPG
  15. 15. Works cited <ul><li>Buttler, Rhet. &quot;Deforestation in the Amazon&quot;. Mongabay.com. 16 June 2010 <http://www.mongabay.com/brazil.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Butler, Rhet. &quot;Reduced Impact Logging.&quot; Mongabay.com . Rhet Buttler, 2010. Web. 15 June 2010. http://rainforests.mongabay.com/1011.htm </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;deforestation.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite .  Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Environmental Studies.&quot; Spark Notes . SparkNotes, 2009. Web. 15 June 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>http://sparkcharts.sparknotes.com/gensci/envsci/section3.php </li></ul><ul><li>May, Peter. &quot;FOREST CERTIFICATION IN BRAZIL: .&quot; WTO. WTO, 2003. Web. 15 June 2010. <http://www.wto.org/english/forums_e/ngo_e/ccc_cert_forest_brazil_e.doc>. </li></ul>

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