Birds nadezhda elia botty 10 5

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Birds nadezhda elia botty 10 5

  1. 1. Animal Diversity Project BIRDS Created by: Nadezhda Trichkova Elia Hristova Botty Dimanov
  2. 2. Meaning? Symmetry? Evolutionary Tree <ul><li>Class Aves (aka birds) – Птици </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest fossil – 150 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>(Late Jurassic Archaeopteryx) </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved from the dinosaurs </li></ul><ul><li>Closest to the clade of crocodiles and aligators </li></ul><ul><li>*Archosaurs </li></ul><ul><li>340million years ago - amniote clade - us and them </li></ul>
  3. 3. Derived Characteristics Related to Flying <ul><li>lack urinary bladder (sac for temporary storage of urine) </li></ul><ul><li>most female spieces have only one ovary(the reproductive organ in female animals that produces eggs and the sex hormones- яйчник) </li></ul><ul><li>gonads(A reproductive gland, for instance ovary or testis, that produces gametes-cell with the haploid number of chromosomes),. полова жлеза ) of both male and female representatives are really small, except during the breeding period </li></ul>
  4. 4. Derived Characteristics Related to Flying <ul><li>Lack teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow bones </li></ul><ul><li>Wings with feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs having special tubes leading inside and outside of unique elastic air sacs </li></ul><ul><li>proportionally large brain </li></ul><ul><li>internal fertilization- nesting of eggs </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Life Cycle of Birds <ul><li>Breeding Migration - birds fly back northward </li></ul><ul><li>Territory Formation - males protect territory and draw the attention of females </li></ul><ul><li>Courtship/ Wooing - birds choose mates and form braces </li></ul><ul><li>Building a Nest </li></ul><ul><li>Mating and Laying Eggs - coupling; the female lays her eggs </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Life Cycle of Birds <ul><li>Incubation – female - warms the eggs; male - protects the nest and brings food </li></ul><ul><li>Nestlings - the parents warm, feed and protect their little chicks </li></ul><ul><li>Fledglings - the newborn birds have feathers and start searching for their food </li></ul><ul><li>Migration - birds fly off </li></ul><ul><li>Winter - pairs split; no reproduction </li></ul>
  7. 7. How Do Birds Move? <ul><li>Most birds fly . </li></ul><ul><li>Flapping of wings - lower pressure and higher velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation – provides the thrust </li></ul><ul><li>Light and flexible feathers ; muscles – allow movement </li></ul><ul><li>Bones – hollow => light bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Others walk or hop ; ability to swim ; ability to dive </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reproduction of Birds <ul><li>Sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Males – two testes ; F emales - (left) ovary and oviduct </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm - stored the female’s cloaca (1 week – 1 year) </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs become fertilized </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs need to be warmed and incubated </li></ul><ul><li>Parents provide protection , warmth and food to the new born offspring </li></ul>
  9. 9. Laysan Albatross <ul><li>Scientific name: Phoebastria immutabilis </li></ul><ul><li>Common name(s): Laysan albatross (English); Albatross De Laysan (Spanish) </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: a marine bird; breeds annually; the nests – on the sand or more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Range: 16 sites: the USA (Hawaii and US Minor Outlying Islands); small colonies in Japan, Mexico </li></ul>
  10. 10. Laysan Albatross <ul><li>Food: fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, a variety of invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: flying </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological role/niche: eats mainly fish and a variety of invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle changes: in July - migrates NW to Japan and then NE and south back </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with people: 20th century – decreased population (military and illegal hunting); today – protected, but still endangered </li></ul>
  11. 11. King Penguin <ul><li>Scientific name: Aptenodytes patagonicus </li></ul><ul><li>Common name(s): King Penguin </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: dense colonies usually near the cost (and rarely around a km inland); no distinct nests; very long breeding cycle (14 to 16 months for a single chick and with a maximum of 2 chicks for 3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Range : encountered in the sub-Antarctic belt on islands in the Atlantic, Indian, and South Pacific oceans; colonies found in Prince Edward, South Georgia, Falkland, etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. King Penguin <ul><li>Food: mainly fish (from 80 to 100 %) and squid; also crustaceans, cephalopods, and krill </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: flightless; it swims and dives; on land walks / slides on its belly (a.k.a. tobogganing) </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological role/niche: eats mainly fish; enemies include giant petrels, predatory gulls, orcas, leopard seals </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle changes: can be found in its colony during every time of the year (due to extended breeding); sometimes migrates </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with people: a lot of penguins are kept in captivity in different zoos; a protected animal </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bald eagle <ul><li>Scientific name: Haliaeetus leucocephalus </li></ul><ul><li>Common name(s): Bald eagle </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: near the costs of seas, rivers, and lakes; has nests (sticks, leaves, and moss) </li></ul><ul><li>Range : the USA, Canada, the northern parts of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Food: fish, small mammals, turtles, and birds </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: flying </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bald eagle <ul><li>Ecological role/niche: a good hunter (prey – kinds of fish that swim in the shallows); it also steals the prey of other birds and predatory mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle changes: migrates in the fall to large rivers or to coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with people: * a decreased population (destroyed habitat areas and illegal killing); today – protected; a special permit required to keep them in capticity </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting fact : has sharp eyesight & strong beak and talons </li></ul><ul><li>A Fun Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Guess how fast can the fastest bird fly </li></ul>
  15. 15. Works Cited <ul><li>American Bold Eagle Information. 1999 - 2010 baldeagleinfo.com </li></ul><ul><li>22 March 2010. <http://www.baldeagleinfo.com/>.(migration of Bald eagles) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ).” Texas Parks and Wildlife. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. </li></ul><ul><li>22 March 2010. <http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/baldeagle/ >. </li></ul><ul><li>(range, diet, interaction with people of Bald eagles) </li></ul><ul><li>“ King Penguin.” Lincoln Park Zoo. 2001 North Clark Street, Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>22 March 2010. <http://www.lpzoo.org/factsheet.php?contentID=72>. </li></ul><ul><li>(range, niche, habitat of King penguins) </li></ul><ul><li>“ King Penguin.” PenguinWorld.com. Dr. Lloyd Davis, Daniel Davis, Uwe Kils. </li></ul><ul><li>22 March 2010. <http://www.penguinworld.com/types/king.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>(diet, migration, habits of King penguins) </li></ul><ul><li>“ King penguin - Aptenodytes patagonicus. ” Pinguins.info. July 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>22 March 2010. <http://www.pinguins.info/Engels/Aptenodytes_eng.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>(nesting and predators) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Laysan Albatross.” BirdWeb. 2005-2008 Seattle Audubon Society. </li></ul><ul><li>22 March 2010. <http://www.seattleaudubon.org/birdweb/bird_details.aspx?id=13>. </li></ul><ul><li>(habitat, nesting, diet, migration of Laysan albatrosses) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Phoebastria immutabilis .” RedList. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>22 March 2010. <http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144905/0>. </li></ul><ul><li>(range and common names of Laysan albatrosses) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Works Cited <ul><li>Donald and Lillian Stokes . &quot;The Birdfeeder Book&quot; 23 rd March, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.bird-friends.com/Life.html > </li></ul><ul><li>(The Life Cycle of Birds) </li></ul><ul><li>Kenneth Dial . Birds Order Aves. “Flight and Locomotion” 23 rd March, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biodiversity/birds/aviantopics/avianflightandlocomotion.html > (How do birds fly?) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Penguins as Diving Birds” 23 rd March, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/midorcas/animalphysiology/websites/2004/Gooch/Diving%20Birds.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>(Birds that don’t fly - penguins) </li></ul><ul><li>Bird. “Reproduction” 23 rd March, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/bird/reproduction.html > (Reproduction of Birds) </li></ul><ul><li>Neil A. Campbel. Biology. “Birds” 22 nd March, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>(Derived characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>Images: </li></ul><ul><li>http://fatfinch.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/bald-eagle-head2.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.rareware.com/extras/scribes/9feb06/king_penguin.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.biodiversityexplorer.org/birds/diomedeidae/images/54126177.MtyB_327w.jpg </li></ul>

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