Amphibians ppt 1-1 10-3 mila satchansky lewbina

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Amphibians ppt 1-1 10-3 mila satchansky lewbina

  1. 1. Amphibians Mila Daskalova Dimitar Satchansky Lewbina Ilkova 10/3
  2. 2. Meaning of the scientific name for this clade <ul><li>The word amphibians comes from the Greek ’ ἀμφίβιος amphíbios (8) </li></ul><ul><li>The translation of this phrase literaly means “both lifes” (8) </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians start their life in water, but they spend the most of their lives on land(8) </li></ul>http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Spea_hammondii_1.jpg/200px-Spea_hammondii_1.jpg
  3. 3. Symmetry <ul><li>The amphibians have bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Central axis </li></ul><ul><li>Two equal parts  left and right (9) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution <ul><li>The first vertebrates that can live on land as well as in water (3) </li></ul><ul><li>The evolutionary link between fishes and reptiles (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors of reptiles, birds and mammals (3) </li></ul><ul><li>From the lung-possessing fishes Crossopterygians (able to breathe in water AND on land) (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Salamanders developed in Northern Hemisphere; Frogs inhabited Equatorial areas (3) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Evolution <ul><li>Appeared during the Devonian Period (408-387 million years ago) – about 370 million years ago shared a common ancestor with humans (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest known representative – ichthyostegalians (5 toes, tail fin with scales) (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant for about 75million years (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased in number after a dry period (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them evolved in reptiles (1) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types <ul><li>There are 3 types amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>Anures (frogs, toads) </li></ul><ul><li>Urodels (salamanders, tritons) </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnophions (with a snake-like body, without legs and with teeth, living in tropical climates) (11) </li></ul>http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources-rx/images/caecilin_gower-43199-1.jpg <ul><ul><li>http://inkart.net/animals/images/large/fire_salamander.jpg </li></ul></ul>http://www.aquariumofpacific.org/images/olc/golden_dart_frog600ar.jpg
  7. 7. Main Characteristics <ul><li>cold-blooded (9) </li></ul><ul><li>live both in water and land (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Tadpole (9) </li></ul><ul><li>webbed feet (12) </li></ul><ul><li>can hear vibrations in the ground (9) </li></ul>http:// www.erodent.co.uk/GardenPond/PondPhotos/Tadpole8.jpg http://www.itsnature.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/wallaces-flying-frog.jpg
  8. 8. Main Characteristics <ul><li>may become inactive during estivation period (9) </li></ul><ul><li>have small lungs or none because they can take oxygen vie their skin (9) </li></ul><ul><li>moist, scaleless skin that absorbs water and oxygen , lacking hair (12) </li></ul>http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3072/2749701721_88199a97b0.jpg
  9. 9. Reproduction <ul><li>Reproduce by eggs ,laid by the female(6) </li></ul><ul><li>3 main ways: </li></ul><ul><li>a) external fertilization (6) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Deposition of sperm outside the female(6) </li></ul><ul><li>c) Deposition of sperm inside the female(6) </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs are most often laid in fresh water, some exceptions exist such as “Fejervarya raja” (6) </li></ul>http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/frog-life-cycle.gif
  10. 10. Circulatory & Respiratory Systems <ul><li>Heart contains a ventricle and two atria, the single ventricle meaning not high efficiency of the system </li></ul><ul><li>In the ventricle oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are not mixed due to a specific mechanism of contractions of the two atria at different times </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is respiratory organ through which amphibians absorb additional oxygen. However, it works in the same mechanism as gills, and requires constant moisture (2) </li></ul>http://www.mbscientific.com/CircSysAmphibian.gif
  11. 11. Protection Various kinds of protection -Colorization (7) -Jumping (by some frogs) (7) -Fast movement( by salamanders) (7) -Enlargement of the body, feign death (7) -Skin toxins (7) http://images.livescience.com/images/071030-leaf-frog-04.jpg
  12. 12. Locomotion <ul><li>those with short legs (salamanders)- walk or run-the body is close to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>those with long legs ( frogs and toads )- leap and hop </li></ul><ul><li>Tadpoles - no legs- only swim </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding- if they have l ong toes that are separated by webbing that reaches the toe tip s </li></ul>
  13. 13. Human Uses/Interactions <ul><li>- Used in medicine for testing product on them </li></ul><ul><li>-Used in labs for dissections </li></ul><ul><li>-Humans tend to pollute their habitat </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tiger Salamander *Abystoma tigrinum, reaches 15-20sm, colored in green, black and grey(5) *Entire life on land, only breed in water, mainly live underground.(5) *Live in hot and dry grasslands(5) *Waits for its prey and captures it with mouth( beetles, earthworms, snails, mice)(5) *If there is not enough food for the larvae they can turn to “canibalism” (5) http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/animals/images/primary/tiger-salamander.jpg http://mylittlebubble.me/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/tiger_salamander_380.jpg
  15. 15. Strawberry Poisonous Dart Frog <ul><li>Dendrobates pumilio </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous, indicated by the bright colored skin </li></ul><ul><li>17-24mm long </li></ul><ul><li>In rainforests in Central America especially Costa Rica </li></ul><ul><li>Female transports tadpole on back, Males protect territory, fight up to 20 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>on hind legs </li></ul><ul><li>Females approach males </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 5 eggs </li></ul><ul><li>6-8 weeks later tadpoles turn </li></ul><ul><li>into frogs (12) </li></ul>Information and facts on frogs. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.lookd.com/frogs/ evolution.html>. http://free-extras.com/images/red_frog-93.htm
  16. 16. Axolotl <ul><li>Ambystoma Maxicanum </li></ul><ul><li>Name comes from Aztec: „atl” - „water”; „xolotl” - „monster” </li></ul><ul><li>Very large, never-growing-up tadpole </li></ul><ul><li>Larval form of Mexican mole </li></ul><ul><li>salamander, never metamorphoses </li></ul><ul><li>Dark grey or white with black eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Small lungs and reproductive system </li></ul><ul><li>Can't live out of water </li></ul><ul><li>Southern part of Lake Xochimilco, </li></ul><ul><li>the canal system to it and the system </li></ul><ul><li>around Lake Chalco (4) </li></ul>http://i48.photobucket.com/albums/f236/photolu2/Axolotl.jpg
  17. 17. Fun Fact <ul><li>Tadpoles are cannibals!!! </li></ul><ul><li>RAWR! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Work Cited <ul><li>1. Information and facts on frogs. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.lookd.com/frogs/evolution.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>2. &quot;The Evolution of Amphibians.&quot; Scribd. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.scribd.com/doc/ 11337901/The-Evolution-of-Amphibians>. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Evolution in a Nutshell. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/27885/amphi_ev.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>4. &quot;Axolotl.&quot; The Nature Conservancy. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.nature.org/animals/ amphibians/animals/axolotl.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Edwards, Wally. &quot;Tiger Salamander&quot;. Ministry of Environment. March 29, 2010 http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/frogwatch/whoswho/factshts/tigersal.htm </li></ul><ul><li>6. McLaughin, Rob. &quot;Apmhibian morphology and reproduction&quot;. March 29, 2010 http://www.aquatic.uoguelph.ca/amphibians/books/book2/bookframe1.htm </li></ul><ul><li>7. Campbell, Megan. &quot;Apmhibian predator defences&quot;. March 29, 2010 http://fwf.ag.utk.edu/mgray/wfs493/Lectures/Students/Campbell.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>8.. &quot;Amphibians&quot;. USGS. March 29, 2010 <http://www.mcwdn.org/Animals/Amphibian.html> </li></ul><ul><li>9. &quot;Amphibians - Body, Used, Water, Process, Earth, Life, Characteristics, Form, Animals, Oxygen, Air, Plant, Change, History, Characteristics, Life Cycle, Three Major Groupings.&quot; Science Clarified . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.scienceclarified.com/Al-As/Amphibians.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>10. &quot;Getting to Know Amphibians.&quot; animals.jrank.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li><http://animals.jrank.org/pages/2/Getting-Know-Amphibians.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>11. &quot;Introduction to Amphibian Biology.&quot; www.amphibiainfo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 </li></ul><ul><li>Mar. 2010. <http://www.amphibiainfo.com/biology/>. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Lyon, Heather. &quot;Why amphibians are unique in the animal world .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>www.helium.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.helium.com/items/ </li></ul><ul><li>701459-why-amphibians-are-unique-in-the-animal-world>. </li></ul>

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