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Air pollution

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Air pollution

  1. 1. Human Impact on our Ecosystem Air Pollution Siyana Julia Boris
  2. 2. The Problem of Air Pollution <ul><li>Very old but much worse in modern times due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic boom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglect of the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Causes and Effects of Air Pollution
  4. 4. Sources of Pollutants <ul><li>Transportation (mainly automobiles) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide (CO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons (HC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxides (NOx) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power plants and other industrial facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel combustion in stationary sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(1) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Pollutants <ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>NOx – nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC or freons) </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate matter </li></ul><ul><li>Smog </li></ul><ul><li>(1) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Pollutants
  7. 7. Specific Factors for Air Pollution in Bulgaria <ul><li>Large share of old vehicles without catalytic converters </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of restrictions on imported second hand cars </li></ul><ul><li>Heating – still a lot of coal burning in the countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Metallurgy – steel production, non-ferrous metals </li></ul><ul><li>(1) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Agenda 21
  9. 9. Principles of the environmental policy: <ul><li>polluter pays </li></ul><ul><li>public right to know </li></ul><ul><li>prevention </li></ul><ul><li>(2) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Measures <ul><li>Economic methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tax incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emission fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>duty-free importation of environmentally friendly equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>liability of the State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conversation of industrial installations from coal/fuel oil to natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wider use of lead-free gasolene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training and Public awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training of managerial staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>media campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schools – curriculum and extra-curriculum activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Maritsa East
  12. 12. Mexico City <ul><li>Reasons for the air pollution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical position: plateau, surrounded by mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor vehicles, power plants, industrial facilities, mining (4) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures Taken: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air quality improvement policies (pollution control devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the use of private vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change of fuels (5) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mexico City
  14. 14. Statistics <ul><li>Pressure indicator: Air Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) (3) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Statistics <ul><li>State indicator: Urban population exposure to air pollution by ozone (3) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bulgaria 2000 2005 2006 Ceiling EU-27 average Rank in EU-27 Urban population exposure to air pollution by particles 20.4 55.6 55.4 30.0 30.0 23 out of 23 Urban population exposure to air pollution by ozone 200 (2001) 2 154 2 124 n.a. 4 417 3 out of 23 Air pollutant emissions (by 2010) EU27 total <ul><li>SO 2 </li></ul>1045 900 877 836 7946 <ul><li>NO 2 </li></ul>128 233 246 247 11198 <ul><li>NMVOCs </li></ul>79 147 159 175 9391 <ul><li>NH 3 </li></ul>58 57 55 108 4006 H 2 O exploitation 1990 64.9% 2005 38.2% n.a. 26
  17. 17. Sources <ul><li>Socha, Tom. &quot;Air Pollution Causes and Effects&quot;. Jun 8, 2010 <http://healthandenergy.com/air_pollution_causes.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BULGARIA&quot;. Sustainable Development. Jun 8, 2010 <http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/bulgaria/natur.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission, Part 2-Environment Policy Actions in the Member States </li></ul><ul><li>Michaels, Patricia. &quot;Air Pollution in Mexico&quot;. Jun 15, 2010 <http://greennature.com/article827.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Yip , Maricela . &quot;Air Pollution in Mexico City&quot;. Jun 15, 2010 <http://www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/pierofun/mexico/air.htm>. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pictures Sources <ul><li>http://www.novinite.com/media/images/2010-03/photo_verybig_113882.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kosmosltd.net/images/agenda21.gif </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.activeset.org/photos/joge/air_pollution_pl_600fix.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Luftverschmutzung-Ursachen%26Auswirkungen.svg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ew.govt.nz/PageFiles/660/emissionsindex.gif </li></ul><ul><li>http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/americas/9909/30/mexico.quake.01/mexico.mexico.city.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pollutionissues.com/images/paz_02_img0237.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.buckminster.info/Pics/Energy/Ergy-Grid-Bulgaria.gif </li></ul>

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  • NiteshButolazz

    Dec. 5, 2019

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