Air poll velizar_lewbina_iva


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Air poll velizar_lewbina_iva

  1. 1. Air Pollution in Bulgaria Created by: Velizar Tonchev Lewbina Ilkova Iva Dikova 10/3
  2. 2. Air Pollution Basics <ul><li>Air pollution causes health problems in humans and animals .(3) </li></ul><ul><li>It also damages plants, pollutes water and therefore kills the fish in the oceans.(3) </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces visibility. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>C an cause smog, acid rain, and increase in global warming. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution is caused both by nature and by human beings. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>The quality standards for air have six criteria pollutants – Ozone (O3), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Particulate Matter (PM), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), and Lead (Pb).(3) </li></ul><ul><li>There are other air pollutants – factory smokestacks, forest fires, etc. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution – found both indoors and outdoors. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies trying to find solution to this problem.(3) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sources <ul><li>Gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels present in automobiles, trucks, and airplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of fossil fuels in generating stations, factories </li></ul><ul><li>Metallurgy </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides, herbicides, and dust from fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Production of cement and concrete </li></ul> Cement Production
  4. 4. Sulfur Oxides <ul><li>Sulfur is the most common and critical element to air pollution. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>It is contained in fossil fuels as an impurity and when burned, it binds with oxygen. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>The major sources are burned fossil fuels. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>When binds with water it produces acid rain, harmful to crops, buildings, and animals. (2) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nitrogen Oxides <ul><li>There are two main Nitrogen Oxides – Nitric Oxide (NO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2). (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitric Oxide is the major primary emission and it quickly oxidizes to NO2 . (2) </li></ul><ul><li>NO2 is the dominant specie in the atmosphere. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Ways for formation of Nitrogen Oxides (Nitric Oxide and Nitrogen Dioxide). (2) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ground-level Ozone <ul><li>Ozone (O3) affects the lungs - lung performance decreases when the concentration of ozone (O3) increases. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>It also irritate s the respiratory system causing cough, throat irritation, and chest tightness. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone also makes it harder for people to breathe deeply and vigorously. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>In asthmatics – increase of asthma attacks when the levels of ozone (O3) in the air are high. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>This can be explained with the fact that Ozone makes people more sensitive to allergens, and allergies are the main reason for asthma attacks. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone can also worsen chronic lung diseases like as emphysema and bronchitis. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>O zone may also reduce the ability of the immune system to fight off bacterial infections in the respiratory system. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the effects caused by Ozone are short-term. (2) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solutions <ul><li>There are two major types of control over pollution – input control and output control. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Input control deals with preventing the problem before it occurs . If this is not possible, it at least limit s the effects that the process will produce. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>There are f ive main input control methods – limitation of population growth, us age of less energy, improvement of energy efficiency, reducing of waste, and moving to non-polluting “ renewable forms of energy production ” . (1)   </li></ul><ul><li>Also, pollution caused by automobile emissions can be reduced. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, o utput control seeks to fix the problems caused by air pollution. This involves cleaning of an area that has been damaged by pollution. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Input controls - more effective than output controls. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Output controls - more expensive .Therefore , input controls are more desirable and preferable to tax payers and polluting industries. (1) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mexico City <ul><li>In 1992 the UN concludes that Mexico is the most polluted city in the world.(11) </li></ul><ul><li>Factors: industrial growth, population boom(20 million), geographic disadvantage.(11) </li></ul><ul><li>The polluted air is a cause for more than 33000 respiratory diseases, 266 infant deaths, and 760 million dollar expenses per year.(11) </li></ul><ul><li>15 billion dollar project is started in order to increase the quality of the air: training and information programs for the citizens, government regulations to reduce releases of factories, alternative fuel program, usage of bio products.(11) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Work Cited <ul><li>&quot;Air Pollution.&quot; The Environment: A Global Challenge . ThinkQuest, n.d. Web. 8 Jun 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Pollutants, health risk .&quot; Air Quality in Bulgaria . Institute of Control and System Research, n.d. Web. 8 Jun 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Basics.&quot; Easy Breathers: A i r Pollution . Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources,, n.d. Web. 8 Jun 2010. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; CASE STUDY: MEXICO (AIR POLLUTION).&quot; The International Development Research Centre . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 June 2010. <>. </li></ul>