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Chapter 4 Compounds
1. Ionic Compounds
2. Molecular Compounds (Covalent Compounds)
3. Names of Ions
4. Naming Compounds
Ta...
Chapter 4 Compounds
• Predict how atoms combine and make compounds.
What plays an important role in combination of atoms?
...
Chapter 4 Compounds
• A compound is a pure substance containing two or
more types of atoms in definite proportion.
• And i...
Chapter 4 Compounds
Compounds
Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds
Polar Nonpolar
• According to their bond structures;
Chapter 4 Compounds
Chapter 4 Compounds
Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds
• Ionic compounds are formed from metals and
nonmetals by transferring their valance electron...
Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds
Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds
Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds
Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds
Example 1
Table salt, Magnesium fluoride, Calcium oxide, Silver
iodide, Aluminum oxide…etc.
N...
Chapter 4 2. Covalent Compounds
• Covalent compounds are formed between nonmetals
by sharing their valance electrons.
• Co...
Chapter 4 2. Covalent Compounds
• Covalent bonds found between molecules composed of
the same atoms are nonpolar covalent ...
Chapter 4 2. Covalent Compounds
• They are composed of nonmetal elements.
• They generally do not conduct electricity, bec...
Chapter 4 2. Covalent Compounds
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
• In order to write formula of compounds names of ions
should be known.
Monoatomic Cations (Met...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Monoatomic Cations (Metal ions)
+2
Fe+2 Iron (II)
Cr+2 Chromium (II)
+3
Fe+3 Iron (III)
Cr+3 Ch...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Monoatomic Anions (Nonmetal ions)
-1 -2
F- Fluoride O-2 Oxide
Cl- Chloride S-2 Sulfide
Br- Brom...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Polyatomic Anions
-1 -2
OH-1 Hydroxide SO4
-2 Sulfate
NO3
-1 Nitrate SO3
-2 Sulfite
NO2
-1 Nitr...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Monoatomic Cations (Metal ions)
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Polyatomic Ions
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Polyatomic Ions
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Formation of Monoatomic Ions
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
• A formula is a combination of symbols and numbers
that represents compounds.
H3PO4
symbols of...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds
• Net charge of ions of a
compound must be zero.
X
+n
Y
-m
...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds
Solution
a. KBr b. MgO c. Ca3N2
Example 4
Write the formula...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Finding the Oxidation Number of an Element in a Compound
• Sum of the oxidation numbers of elem...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Finding the Oxidation Number of an Element in a Compound
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Finding the Oxidation Number of an Element in a Compound
2 Al + 3.(S+4.O) = 0
2 . (+3) + 3.{x+4...
Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions
Finding the Oxidation Number of Elements in Polyatomic Ions
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
A. Naming Ionic Compounds
Name of Metal + Name of Nonmetal ion
Example 6
Name the following ...
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
A. Naming Ionic Compounds
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
A. Naming Ionic Compounds
Example 7
Name the following ionic compounds.
a. KOH b. NiSO4 c. Z...
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
A. Naming Ionic Compounds
Example 8
Name the following ionic compounds.
a. Fe2O3 b. CuSO4 c....
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
B. Naming Molecular Compounds
Number + Name of Nonmetal + Number + Name of Nonmetal
• Greek ...
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
B. Naming Molecular Compounds, continued
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
Example 9
Name the following molecular compounds.
a. NO2 b. CCl4 c. N2O5 d. P2O3
Solution
a....
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
The Law of Definite Proportion (Proust’s Law)
• Proust stated that elements of a compound ar...
Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
The Law of Definite Proportion (Proust’s Law)
Solution
CH4:
mC
mH
=
12
4
=
3
1
a.
= 3
SO2 :
...
End of the chapter 4
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Compounds

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Compounds

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Compounds 1. Ionic Compounds 2. Molecular Compounds (Covalent Compounds) 3. Names of Ions 4. Naming Compounds Table of Contents
  2. 2. Chapter 4 Compounds • Predict how atoms combine and make compounds. What plays an important role in combination of atoms? Warm up • Predict changes during formation of compounds. • List down some items that you use in life and classify them in a way with same characteristics.
  3. 3. Chapter 4 Compounds • A compound is a pure substance containing two or more types of atoms in definite proportion. • And its smallest unit is called molecule. • Compounds do not resemble their constituents.
  4. 4. Chapter 4 Compounds Compounds Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds Polar Nonpolar • According to their bond structures;
  5. 5. Chapter 4 Compounds
  6. 6. Chapter 4 Compounds
  7. 7. Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds • Ionic compounds are formed from metals and nonmetals by transferring their valance electrons. • Ionic compounds have ionic bonds. • They do not conduct electricity in their solid state. Their aqueous solutions conduct electricity. • They are solids at room conditions. • They have crystalline structures. • They generally dissolve in water and produce ions.
  8. 8. Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds
  9. 9. Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds
  10. 10. Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds
  11. 11. Chapter 4 1. Ionic Compounds Example 1 Table salt, Magnesium fluoride, Calcium oxide, Silver iodide, Aluminum oxide…etc. Na Na + + 1e- Cl + 1e- Cl- Na + Cl- + NaCl table salt
  12. 12. Chapter 4 2. Covalent Compounds • Covalent compounds are formed between nonmetals by sharing their valance electrons. • Covalent compounds have covalent bonds. Carbon dioxide. Water
  13. 13. Chapter 4 2. Covalent Compounds • Covalent bonds found between molecules composed of the same atoms are nonpolar covalent bonds. Bromine, Br2 Nitrogen gas, N2 Oxygen gas, O2 • Covalent bonds between atoms with different nonmetals are called polar covalent bonds. HCl HF
  14. 14. Chapter 4 2. Covalent Compounds • They are composed of nonmetal elements. • They generally do not conduct electricity, because their molecular structures are conserved while dissolving. • They can be solid, liquid and gaseous at room conditions. Example 2 Water, alcohol, sugar, acetic acid, ozone …etc.
  15. 15. Chapter 4 2. Covalent Compounds
  16. 16. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions • In order to write formula of compounds names of ions should be known. Monoatomic Cations (Metal ions) +1 +2 H+ Hydrogen Mg+2 Magnesium Na+ Sodium Hg+2 Mercury (II) K+ Potassium Ca+2 Calcium Hg+ Mercury Cu+2 Copper (II) Ag+ Silver Ba+2 Barium Cu+ Copper Ni+2 Nickel Li+ Lithium Zn+2 Zinc
  17. 17. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Monoatomic Cations (Metal ions) +2 Fe+2 Iron (II) Cr+2 Chromium (II) +3 Fe+3 Iron (III) Cr+3 Chromium (III) +4 Pb+4 Lead (IV) Sn+4 Tin (IV) Pb+2 Lead (II) Sn+2 Tin (II) +1 NH4 +1 Ammonium H3O+1 Hydronium Polyatomic Cations
  18. 18. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Monoatomic Anions (Nonmetal ions) -1 -2 F- Fluoride O-2 Oxide Cl- Chloride S-2 Sulfide Br- Bromide -3 I- Iodide N-3 Nitride H- Hydride P-3 Phosphide
  19. 19. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Polyatomic Anions -1 -2 OH-1 Hydroxide SO4 -2 Sulfate NO3 -1 Nitrate SO3 -2 Sulfite NO2 -1 Nitrite CO3 -2 Carbonate CH3COO-1 Acetate CrO4 -2 Chromate ClO2 -1 Chlorite Cr2O7 -2 Dichromate ClO3 -1 Chlorate MnO4 -2 Manganate CN-1 Cyanide C2O4 -2 Oxalate MnO4 -1 Permanganate -3 PO4 -3 Phosphate PO3 -3 Phosphite
  20. 20. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Monoatomic Cations (Metal ions)
  21. 21. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Polyatomic Ions
  22. 22. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Polyatomic Ions
  23. 23. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Formation of Monoatomic Ions
  24. 24. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions • A formula is a combination of symbols and numbers that represents compounds. H3PO4 symbols of elements numbers of atoms • 3 different elements, H, P and O. • Contains 3-H, 1-P, 4-O atoms. • 1 molecule of H3PO4 contains a total of 8 atoms. • Subscript 1 is not written in the formulas of compounds.
  25. 25. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds • Net charge of ions of a compound must be zero. X +n Y -m X nYm Example 3 Write the formula of compounds between ions given below. a. K+ and Br- b. Mg+2 and O-2 c. Ca+2 and N-3
  26. 26. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds Solution a. KBr b. MgO c. Ca3N2 Example 4 Write the formula of compounds between ions given below. a. Li+ and CO3 -2 b. Ba+2 and NO3 -1 c. NH4 + and P-3 Solution a. Li2CO3 b. Ba(NO3)2 c. (NH4)3P
  27. 27. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Finding the Oxidation Number of an Element in a Compound • Sum of the oxidation numbers of elements in a compound is zero. • Oxidation numbers of some common ions like Na+, K+, Li+, Ca+2, Ba+2, Zn+2, Ag+, Al+3 are constant. • In general oxygen has -2 oxidation number and hydrogen has +1 oxidation number. Example 5 Find the oxidation number (valency) of C in Li2CO3. Solution Li2CO3 +1 x -2 2 Li + C + 3 O = 0 2 x (+1) + x + 3 x (-2) = 0 x = +4
  28. 28. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Finding the Oxidation Number of an Element in a Compound
  29. 29. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Finding the Oxidation Number of an Element in a Compound 2 Al + 3.(S+4.O) = 0 2 . (+3) + 3.{x+4.(-2)} = 0 6 + 3.{x-8} = 0 6 + 3x - 24 = 0 3x = 18 x = +6 Solution Al2(SO4)3 +3 x-2 Example 5 Find the oxidation number (valency) of S in Al2(SO4)3.
  30. 30. Chapter 4 3. Names of Ions Finding the Oxidation Number of Elements in Polyatomic Ions
  31. 31. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds A. Naming Ionic Compounds Name of Metal + Name of Nonmetal ion Example 6 Name the following ionic compounds. a. NaBr b. Al2O3 c. ZnF2 d. Ba3N2 Solution a. Sodium Bromide b. Aluminum Oxide c. Zinc Fluoride d. Barium Nitride
  32. 32. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds A. Naming Ionic Compounds
  33. 33. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds A. Naming Ionic Compounds Example 7 Name the following ionic compounds. a. KOH b. NiSO4 c. Zn(MnO4)2 d. NH4Cl Solution a. Potassium Hydroxide b. Nickel Sulfate c. Zinc Permanganate d. Ammonium Chloride
  34. 34. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds A. Naming Ionic Compounds Example 8 Name the following ionic compounds. a. Fe2O3 b. CuSO4 c. Pb(NO3)4 d. SnC2O4 Solution a. Iron (III) Oxide b. Copper (II) Sulfate c. Lead (IV) Nitrate d. Tin (II) oxalate
  35. 35. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds B. Naming Molecular Compounds Number + Name of Nonmetal + Number + Name of Nonmetal • Greek numbers are used to show the number of atoms. Mono 1 Hexa 6 Di 2 Hepta 7 Tri 3 Octa 8 Tetra 4 Nona 9 Penta 5 Deca 10 Cl2O5 Dichloro Pentoxide
  36. 36. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds B. Naming Molecular Compounds, continued
  37. 37. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds Example 9 Name the following molecular compounds. a. NO2 b. CCl4 c. N2O5 d. P2O3 Solution a. Nitrogen dioxide b. Carbon tetrachloride c. Dinitrogen pentoxide d. Diphosphorus trioxide B. Naming Molecular Compounds
  38. 38. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds
  39. 39. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds The Law of Definite Proportion (Proust’s Law) • Proust stated that elements of a compound are combined in definite proportion by mass. Example 10 Find the definite proportions of elements in the following compounds. a. CH4 b. SO2 c. KBr 16 amu 12 amu 16 amu CO2: mC mO = 12 32 = 3 8
  40. 40. Chapter 4 4. Naming Compounds The Law of Definite Proportion (Proust’s Law) Solution CH4: mC mH = 12 4 = 3 1 a. = 3 SO2 : mS mO = 32 32 = 1 1 b. = 1 KBr : mK mBr = 39 80 c.
  41. 41. End of the chapter 4

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