The Skeleton And Joints Wk3

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The Skeleton And Joints Wk3

  1. 1. The Skeleton and Joints What the skeleton does
  2. 2. The Skeleton <ul><li>The skeleton is the basic framework of the body. It has four major functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Blood production </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to remember that the body has other systems that support and enhance these functions as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The four major functions have a direct affect on how well or how much physical activity you can do. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Shape and Support <ul><li>Without its rigid skeleton the body would have nothing to support its self on. It is the skeleton that gives each of us our own unique shape and frame. </li></ul><ul><li>The skeleton also determines size. Taller people will have longer bones then shorter people. Sturdiness (thickness of bones) can also effect people often determining overall body weight. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Movement <ul><li>So how does the skeleton move? </li></ul><ul><li>Each joint has muscles either side of it, as these muscles contract (get smaller) they allow the joint to perform the movement required by the body. </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of movement is called articulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Its not just the joints that are important when moving the skeleton also provides a base for the muscles to attach. </li></ul><ul><li>Without this the muscles could not move and physical activity would be limited </li></ul>
  5. 5. Range of movement <ul><li>Greatest Range of Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Hip </li></ul><ul><li>Knee </li></ul><ul><li>Ankle </li></ul>Green = Upper Body Red = Lower Body
  6. 6. Range of movement <ul><li>Smaller Range of Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Hands </li></ul><ul><li>Neck </li></ul><ul><li>Spine </li></ul><ul><li>Feet </li></ul>Green = Upper Body Red = Lower Body
  7. 7. Protection <ul><li>The skeleton also fulfils a very important role in protecting the vital soft tissue organs of the body. Most important are: </li></ul><ul><li>Rib Cage: protects the heart and lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Girdle: protects the abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Column: protects the spinal chord </li></ul><ul><li>Skull : protects the brain </li></ul>
  8. 8. Blood production <ul><li>The body makes blood in the bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Blood contains both red and white blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>The red blood cells carry oxygen to muscles, which they need in order to work </li></ul><ul><li>The white blood cells fight infection in the body. </li></ul>
  9. 9.                                                      
  10. 10. Types of bones <ul><li>There are over 200 bones in the body </li></ul><ul><li>There are over 100 joints in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Bones are divided into four main types: </li></ul><ul><li>Flat bones: the scapula, sternum, cranium, pelvis and the ribs. </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular bones: the vertebrae, patella. </li></ul><ul><li>Long Bones: bones in arms (humerus) and legs (femur). </li></ul><ul><li>Short bones: carpals and tarsals. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Flat Bones <ul><li>Flat bones and irregular bones are usually protective bones. </li></ul><ul><li>The skull, ribs and pelvis protect vital organs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Irregular bones <ul><li>Bones that are not the same shape as each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The vertebrae bones and patella are good examples. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Long Bones <ul><li>Long bones are the levers where the movement in the body takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>The arm contains three: </li></ul><ul><li>Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul><ul><li>Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>The leg also has three: </li></ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Fibula </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tasks <ul><li>Label as many bones as you know on the skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>State next to each bone whether they are a long bones (L), irregular bone (I) or flat bone (F). </li></ul><ul><li>Work in pairs to label the rest of the skeleton. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Joints of the Human Body

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