Navajo Code Talkers

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A power point about the Navajo Code Talkers by Alissa Hartenbaum

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Navajo Code Talkers

  1. 1. By Alissa Hartenbaum Navajo Code Talkers
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>How and why the Navajo Code Talkers were created </li></ul><ul><li>How the code works </li></ul><ul><li>The Navajo language </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese attempts to crack the code </li></ul><ul><li>Honors of the Code Talkers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Philip Johnston <ul><li>A World War 1 veteran who had been raised on a Navajo (Nah-vuh-h ō ) Reservation </li></ul><ul><li>He knew that Choctaw (another Native American language) had been used in WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Under simulated combat conditions, he showed that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds. Machines required 30 minutes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The first 29 Navajo recruits attended boot camp and created the Navajo code. They developed a dictionary and numerous words for military terms which were memorized during training. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How the Code Works <ul><ul><li>Each Navajo word was translated into its English equivalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first letter of the English equivalents spelled an English word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To spell navy : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;tsah” ( N eedle) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ wol-la-chee” ( A nt) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ ah-keh-di- glini” ( V ictor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ tsah-ah-dzoh” ( Y ucca) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wol-la-chee&quot; (ant), &quot;be-la-sana&quot; (apple) and &quot;tse-nill&quot; (axe) all stood for the letter &quot;a.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all words were spelled out. There were 450 code words for certain military terms. “Besh- lo&quot; (iron fish) meant &quot;submarine,&quot; &quot;dah-he- tih-hi&quot; (hummingbird) meant &quot;fighter plane&quot; and &quot;debeh-li-zine&quot; (black street) meant &quot;squad.“ </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Navajo Language <ul><li>Unwritten language </li></ul><ul><li>No alphabet or symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely complex </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken only on the Navajo </li></ul><ul><li>lands of the American </li></ul><ul><li>Southwest </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II </li></ul>
  7. 7. Navajos in America <ul><li>In 1942, there were about 50,000 Navajo tribe members. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1945, about 540 Navajos served as Marines. </li></ul><ul><li>375 to 420 of those trained as code talkers </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>During the first two days of battle at Iwo Jima, over 800 messages were sent and received by only 6 Navajos… </li></ul><ul><li>without any errors </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>A Navajo soldier taken prisoner at Bataan was forced to listen to the jumbled words of talker transmissions. He said to a code talker after the war, &quot;I never figured out what you guys who got me into all that trouble were saying.&quot; </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Japanese chief of intelligence, Lieutenant General Seizo Arisue, said that the only US military codes that Japan never cracked were Marine codes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Honors <ul><ul><li>The Navajo code talkers were honored Sept. 17, 1992, at the Pentagon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Until then, the code had been classified and still used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 code talker veterans attended the dedication of the Navajo code talker exhibit. The exhibit includes a display of photographs, equipment and the original code, along with an explanation of how the code worked. </li></ul></ul>Dedication ceremonies included speeches by the Deputy Secretary of Defense Donald Atwood, U.S. Senator John McCain of Arizona and Navajo President Peterson Zah.
  12. 12. <ul><li>The United States Military has just stated that the “Windtalkers” must never be captured alive by the enemy. Joe Enders and &quot;Ox&quot; Anderson must protect two Navajo code talkers. While Enders is initially frustrated with his assignment, his respect grows as the code talkers prove their worth in the brutal battle to take Saipan. </li></ul><ul><li>Directed by John Woo </li></ul><ul><li>Released in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Won one award and nominated for 3 others </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>August 14 th is now… </li></ul><ul><li>NAVAJO CODE TALKERS DAY </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>We have conquered our enemies Nin hokeh bi-kheh a-na-ih-la </li></ul><ul><li>All over the world Ta-al-tso-go na-he-seel-kai </li></ul><ul><li>On land and on sea Nih-bi-kah-gi do tah kah-gi </li></ul><ul><li>Everywhere we fight Ta-al-tso-go en-da-de-pah </li></ul><ul><li>True and loyal to our duty Tsi-di-da-an-ne ne-tay-yah </li></ul><ul><li>We are know by that Ay be nihe hozeen </li></ul><ul><li>United States Marines Washindon be Akalh Bi-kosi-la </li></ul><ul><li>To be one is a great thing. Ji-lengo ba-hozhon </li></ul><ul><li>Our flag waves Ni-he da-na-ah-taj ihla </li></ul><ul><li>From dawn to setting sun. Yel khol-go e-e-ah </li></ul><ul><li>We have fought every place Day-ne tal-al-tso go enta-she-jah </li></ul><ul><li>where we could take a gun Tal-tso-go entas-se-pah </li></ul><ul><li>From northern lands Ha-kaz dineh-ih be-hay-jah </li></ul><ul><li>To southern tropic scenes, Ado ta aokhek-ash-shen </li></ul><ul><li>We are known to be tireless Do ni-din-da-hi ol-yeh </li></ul><ul><li>The United States Marines Washindon be Akalh-bi Khos </li></ul><ul><li>May we live in peace hereafter Hozo-go nay-yeltay </li></ul><ul><li>to We have conquered all our foes, A-na-oh bi-keh de-dlihn </li></ul><ul><li>No force in the world we cannot Ni-hi-keh di-dlini ta-etin </li></ul><ul><li>conquer, We know of no fear Yeh-wol-ye hi-he a-din </li></ul><ul><li>If the Army and the Navy Sila-go-tsoi do chah-lakai </li></ul><ul><li>Ever look on Heaven's scenes, Ya-ansh-go das dez e e </li></ul><ul><li>United States Marines will be Washindon be Akalh-bi Kosi la there </li></ul><ul><li>Living in peace. Hozo-g-kay-ha-tehn </li></ul>A Navajo Marines Song
  15. 15. The End

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