World War Ii 2


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World War Ii 2

  1. 2. First Reverses <ul><li>December 6, 1941 – Russians launch counterattack against Germans at Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>German army not equipped for winter campaign and loses ground </li></ul>
  2. 3. The final solution <ul><li>1/20/1942 – meeting held in Berlin suburb of Wannsee – Wannsee Conference – to work out a program of exporting Jews to new Extermination camps located in what was Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Timing? – Were the Germans on the downside of the war? </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Japanese Juggernaut <ul><li>December 1941-Early 1942 – Japanese rapidly advance against US and British possessions in Pacific, especially Philippines, Burma, and Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>British Navy loses 2 Battleships to Japanese Aircraft </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Japanese Juggernaut <ul><li>May 1942 – Japanese send fleet to invade far western islands of Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet discovered by US </li></ul><ul><li>June 1942 – Battle of Midway – Japanese lose 4 aircraft carriers – never regain full naval strength </li></ul>
  5. 6. Turning Points in 1942 <ul><li>Germans bail out unsuccessful Italian effort against British in North Africa – nearly win complete victory under German General Erwin Rommel </li></ul><ul><li>July 1942 – Germans stopped at El Alamein, Egypt </li></ul>
  6. 7. Turning Points in 1942 <ul><li>1942-43 – German army forced to surrender at Stalingrad, Russia </li></ul>
  7. 8. 1942 – The Allies <ul><li>Franklin Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>Josef Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek (China) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles De Gaulle (France) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Meetings <ul><li>Churchill & Roosevelt meet frequently </li></ul><ul><li>1942 -Stalin meets with Churchill – urges British and Americans to invade Europe & start a second front </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin & Churchill secretly divide Europe into influence spheres – (percentages agreement) </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt rashly promises Russians a second front in Europe as soon as possible </li></ul>
  9. 10. US Effort in Europe <ul><li>December 1942 - US soldiers invade North Africa – join with British Army to defeat German/Italian forces </li></ul><ul><li>US & British invade Italy in 1943 – very slow going as Germans set up strong defensive line in Italian mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini overthrown after invasion – rescued by Germans </li></ul><ul><li>Allies find very slow going in Italy, even after diversionary landing at city of Anzio </li></ul>
  10. 11. US in the Pacific <ul><li>1942-3 – US begins conquest of small island groups in Pacific – only selected islands captured –‘ Island-hopping’ </li></ul><ul><li>Begins in South Pacific in New Guinea, at island of Guadalcanal </li></ul><ul><li>Moves through Central pacific Island Groups of Carolines, Gilberts, and Marianas </li></ul>
  11. 12. Tehran meeting <ul><li>Big 3 finally meet in Tehran in late 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin promised a second front in France in 1944 </li></ul>
  12. 13. Domestic Issues <ul><li>1943– Roosevelt suffers severe cold – leads to diagnosis of congestive heart failure and hypertension – kept under close supervision by doctors </li></ul><ul><li>Decides to run for a 4 th term as president </li></ul><ul><li>July 20, 1944 – suffers severe angina attack </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt elected in November 1944 </li></ul>
  13. 14. Attempt on Hitler’s life <ul><li>Group of Generals plan assassination of Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>July 20, 1944 – Bomb explodes near Hitler at Army field HQ – Hitler not seriously injured </li></ul><ul><li>Conspirators arrested, tortured & killed </li></ul>
  14. 15. D-Day <ul><li>Allied forces land in France on June 6, 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>Paris recaptured by August </li></ul><ul><li>Germans pushed back into Germany by fall </li></ul>
  15. 16. Counterattack <ul><li>December 1944 -Germans counterattack in Belgium – Battle of the Bulge – beaten back </li></ul><ul><li>Germans rely on new weapons – Not enough to win war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cruise missiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rockets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jet Aircraft </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Yalta <ul><li>Big 3 meet again in February 1945 to decide on fate of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin given free hand in Eastern Europe in exchange for entering War against Japan, after Germany’s defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt not a strong negotiator due to ill health </li></ul>
  17. 18. New President <ul><li>Roosevelt dies of stroke in April 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced by Harry Truman </li></ul>
  18. 19. Götterdammerung <ul><li>Allies enter Germany in late winter 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>Russians close in on Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration camps discovers by horrified allies </li></ul>
  19. 20. Götterdammerung <ul><li>Mussolini killed in Milan on April 28, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler Commits suicide on April 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Germany Surrenders on May 8 th </li></ul>
  20. 21. Discovery of Genocide <ul><li>Rumors of death camps reach Allies during War </li></ul><ul><li>Allies urged to bomb rail lines to extermination camps – refuse </li></ul><ul><li>Allies discover concentration camps & extermination camps as they enter German territory </li></ul><ul><li>At least 9 million people killed by Germans in camps – 6 million Jews </li></ul>
  21. 22. Pacific War <ul><li>Late 1943 – US captures Marianas Islands – Puts US bombers in range of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>As islands closer to Japan are conquered, war becomes more and more brutal </li></ul><ul><li>1945– US captures Iwo Jima(February) and Okinawa – Both with high numbers of casualties </li></ul>
  22. 23. A Way out <ul><li>1941- Albert Einstein writes to Roosevelt saying that Germany may try to build an atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>1942 – Work begins on building an atomic weapon in US – Manhattan Project </li></ul><ul><li>Project infiltrated by Soviet spies </li></ul><ul><li>July 1945 – first successful test of atomic bomb in New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Truman advised US may suffer 1 million casualties in invasion of Japan </li></ul>
  23. 24. Potsdam Conference <ul><li>Truman, Churchill & Stalin meet in Berlin suburb of Potsdam in July 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill voted out of office, replaced by Clement Atlee </li></ul><ul><li>Allies issue final ultimatum to Japan </li></ul>
  24. 25. The Bomb <ul><li>August 6, 1945- Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd bomb dropped 3 days later </li></ul><ul><li>Japan agrees to surrender on August 15 th </li></ul><ul><li>War Officially Ends on September 1 </li></ul>