World War Ii 1


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World War Ii 1

  1. 1. WORLD WAR II The Beginning: 1939-1941
  2. 2. End of Appeasement <ul><li>March 1939 – Germany seizes control of remaining part of Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Czech portions (Bohemia & Moravia) absorbed into Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Remainde4r becomes dependent nation of Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>France & Britain embarrassed at final failure of appeasement </li></ul>
  3. 3. Poland – The next victim? <ul><li>Versailles Treaty – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German city of Danzig declared a free city and placed under Leagoe of Nations Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German province of East Prussia separated from German to alloy Polish access to Baltic Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer 1939 – Hitler demands access to land route to East Prussia – a “Polish Corridor” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Poland – The next victim? <ul><li>France & Britain sign alliances with Poland, pledging to defend her independence </li></ul><ul><li>8/22/39 – Germany signs non-aggression pact with Soviet Union – Stuns the world, and seals Poland’s fate </li></ul>
  5. 5. The War Begins <ul><li>9/1/39 – Germany invades Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Germans use tactic of Blitzkrieg (Lightning War), moving swiftly and using psychological warfare to win </li></ul><ul><li>9/4/39 – France & Britain declare war against Germany </li></ul><ul><li>9/17/39 – Soviet Union also invades Poland </li></ul><ul><li>9/22/39 – Poland surrenders, and is partitioned between Germany and Soviet Union </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Phony War <ul><li>France & Britain deploy soldiers on border of France & Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Neither side attacks during fall of 1940 through early spring 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Germans call it Sitzkrieg (sit-down war) </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to in US as “The Phony War” </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Winter War <ul><li>December 1939 – Soviet Union invades Finland, expecting an easy victory </li></ul><ul><li>Finnish Army holds off Soviet attacks </li></ul><ul><li>First sign of weakness in high command of post-purge Red Army </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Fatal Flaw <ul><li>a truth in Military History: All nations plan for their next war based on their last war </li></ul><ul><li>France – builds a static series of underground fortifications – Maginot Line </li></ul><ul><li>Maginot Line only covers Franco-German Border, as France expected Belgium to build something similar </li></ul><ul><li>Plans to expand the Maginot Line are too late </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Phony War Ends <ul><li>5/10/1940 – Germany invades Holland & Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>German army moves south toward France </li></ul><ul><li>German tanks invade France through lightly-defended forest on Franco-Belgian border, the Ardennes </li></ul>
  10. 10. A new British Prime Minister <ul><li>5/10/1940 – British Prime Minister Chamberlain resigns, replaced by Winston Churchill </li></ul>
  11. 11. Winston Churchill <ul><li>Born 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>Mother – Jennie Jerome – American </li></ul><ul><li>Father- Randolph Churchill – loses mind to syphilis and dies in 1895 </li></ul><ul><li>Does poorly at British Public School of Harrow </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeds at Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst </li></ul>
  12. 12. Winston Churchill <ul><li>1890’s – gets leave from Army to serve as newspaper correspondent in America and South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Captured during Boer War, makes a famous escape </li></ul><ul><li>Elected to Parliament in 1904 as a member of Conservative Party </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves Conservative Party in 1906, rejoins in 1924 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Winston Churchill <ul><li>1910-1915 – serves as First Lord of the Admiralty, in charge of Royal Navy </li></ul><ul><li>Builds up navy prior to WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Supports disastrous Gallipoli campaign, forced from office </li></ul><ul><li>Serves in France for 9 months </li></ul>
  14. 14. Winston Churchill <ul><li>1920’s – serves as Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treasury Secretary), performs poorly </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill not considered for office again until War breaks out, when he again becomes First Lord </li></ul>
  15. 15. France Defeated <ul><li>Late May – German army moving freely through France </li></ul><ul><li>British army forced to English Cannnel, at town of Dunkirk </li></ul><ul><li>5/26=> 6/2/40 – British ships (most privately owned) evacuate nearly ½ million British and French soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>British forced to leave behind most equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Germans believed their air force (Luftwaffe) alone could destroy British </li></ul>
  16. 16. France Defeated <ul><li>6/10/40 – Paris falls to Germans </li></ul><ul><li>6/22 - French sign armistice with Germans at same spot where armistice that ended World War I was signed </li></ul><ul><li>France disarmed and divided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern portions to be occupied, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern portion under a collaborationist government with capital at city of Vichy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French Navy in port in North Africa sunk by British to prevent its capture by Germans </li></ul>
  17. 17. What about America? <ul><li>1930’s -strict Neutrality Acts passed by US Congress that ensured no US involvement in European wars </li></ul><ul><li>1939 – At outbreak of war, Neutrality Acts revised to allow for cash-and-carry (foreign nations could purchase American weapons with cash and take them on their own ships) </li></ul><ul><li>Summer 1940 – British offer 99-year leases on Naval bases in exchange for mothballed US Destroyers from WWI– swap agreed to </li></ul>
  18. 18. Britain on their own <ul><li>British, behind Prime Minister Churchill, resolve to continue fight </li></ul><ul><li>British prepare for likely invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill maintains the nation’s morale </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Battle of Britain <ul><li>Summer 1940 – German planes try to soften Britain for invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Bomber campaign does poorly due to British resistance by fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion postponed by September </li></ul><ul><li>German Bombers turned loose on British cities after British bomb Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>City bombing (especially of London) becomes known as the Blitz </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hitler Turns East <ul><li>1941 – Hitler turns his army away from Britain, invades Yugoslavia & Greece in the spring </li></ul><ul><li>6/22/41 – Germany invades their ally, the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Germans take advantage of surprise and poor Soviet leadership to drive deep into Soviet Union </li></ul>
  21. 21. A new brutality <ul><li>In wake of German invasion, Nazis send in SS groups called Einsatzgruppen, specifically to find and kill Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Einsatzgruppen shoot Jews & bury in mass graves </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis find this method inefficient ant too taxing on their soldiers </li></ul>
  22. 22. An Election in America <ul><li>1940 – US President Franklin Roosevelt breaks tradition by seeking a third term, due to the deteriorating world situation </li></ul><ul><li>Many Americans in opposition, due to desire to stay out of Europe (Isolationism) and opposition of principle of 3 rd term </li></ul><ul><li>Famous isolationists – Charles Lindbergh, Henry Ford </li></ul><ul><li>November 1940 – Roosevelt narrowly re-elected </li></ul>
  23. 23. Growing American Involvement <ul><li>December 1940 – US congress passes Lend-Lease Act – Allows war materiel to be shipped to Britain on American ships without prior payment </li></ul><ul><li>1941 – German submarines begin to target US ships heading toward Britain </li></ul><ul><li>November 1941 – US destroyer torpedoed and sunk by German submarine </li></ul>
  24. 24. Japan’s problems <ul><li>1940 – Japan bogged down in war with China </li></ul><ul><li>Japan sees opportunity for “Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere” – a gathering of all Asian territory under their political and Economic control </li></ul><ul><li>1941 – US and Britain begin embargo of raw materials, including oil and scrap metal </li></ul><ul><li>Japan sends delegation to Washington in November 1941 to negotiate for resumption </li></ul><ul><li>Japan also sends attack fleet across pacific </li></ul>
  25. 25. Pearl Harbor <ul><li>Japan ends negotiations by December 6 th </li></ul><ul><li>Us misinterprets Japanese Actions, does not place forces on alert </li></ul><ul><li>12/7/41 – Japanese attack US naval base at Pearl Harbor, sinking 4 ships, damaging many others </li></ul><ul><li>US aircraft carriers not in port, escape destruction </li></ul>