War Without End


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War Without End

  1. 2. <ul><li>1917 – Allies struggling to stay afloat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France – Army mutinies against taking the offensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian Army suffers severe defeat at Capporetto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian monarchy collapses in revolution </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>February 1917 – Tsar forced to abdicate in revolution </li></ul><ul><li>New government under Alexander Kerensky, called Provisional Government </li></ul><ul><li>New Government promises to maintain war effort </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>New Russian government deeply split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks – “Reds” – want Communist state – opposed to continuing the war with Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mensheviks – “Whites” – support Kerensky </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany allows Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Ulyanov (AKA Lenin) to return to Russia through battle lines </li></ul><ul><li>Red leader Leon Trotsky builds military force, the Red Army </li></ul><ul><li>October (November by current calendar) – Bolsheviks seize power in Russia – Leads to civil war </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>German civilian prime minister resigns in 1917 – Military takes control of government, with Kaiser’s approval </li></ul><ul><li>February 1917 – German telegram (Zimmerman Telegram) to Mexican government intercepted by Britain – Offers territory to Mexico for anti-American alliance </li></ul><ul><li>March 1917 – Germany resumes Unrestricted Submarine Warfare </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>April – US President Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to Declare war against Germany </li></ul><ul><li>War declared on April 7 th </li></ul><ul><li>US will not have a large army in France for at least 1 year </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>December 1917 – Russian and Germans armies agree to an armistice </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1918 – Bolsheviks meet with Germans to make separate peace treaty </li></ul><ul><li>March 1918 – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Germans take huge amount of territory from Russia and claim huge reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty terrifies Allies at possible German treaty to end war on Western Front </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty frees up entire German Army for action on Western Front </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Spring 1918 – Germany launches large offensive on Western Front </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive stopped at Marne River by French and US forces </li></ul><ul><li>German military aware of defeat after failure of offensive </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Allies launch offensive in mid-August at Amiens </li></ul><ul><li>US launches offensive in Meuse-Argonne in September </li></ul><ul><li>Germans forced to retreat to “Hindenburg Line” – Last line of defense </li></ul><ul><li>11/8 – Austrian emperor abdicates, Austria asks for armistice </li></ul><ul><li>11/9 – German army commander Hindenburg tells Kaiser he is no longer supported in Germany – Kaiser abdicates, goes into exile in Holland </li></ul><ul><li>11/10 – Germany declared a republic – begins negotiations for Armistice with Allies </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>11/11 – Agreement reached on an armistice </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting ends at 11 AM on 11/11 </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Russian Civil war begins in 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Tsar & family murdered by Bolsheviks </li></ul><ul><li>Allies intervene to keep Bolsheviks from taking control of Russian ports </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>1918 – Flu epidemic begins on US army bases </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads to Europe in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>100 Million Die </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>January-May 1919 – Victorious Allies meet in Paris & Suburbs (Versailles & St-Germain) to negotiate peace treaties among themselves </li></ul><ul><li>BIG FOUR </li></ul><ul><li>France – George Clemenceau </li></ul><ul><li>Britain – David Lloyd George </li></ul><ul><li>US – Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Italy – Vittorio Orlando </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Wilson – Wants peace based on FOURTEEN POINTS – all nations treated as equals, now in a worldwide organization, the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Clemenceau -Wants Germany to suffer severely </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>6/28/1919 – Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles under protest </li></ul><ul><li>Military reduced to 10,000 men, no navy or air force </li></ul><ul><li>Territory removed – new nation of Poland </li></ul>