The World Of 1890


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The World Of 1890

  1. 3. The old Balance of Power <ul><li>1815 – after final defeat of Napoleon – Congress on Vienna set up new boundaries in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Peace kept by 5 countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interrupted in 1839 by formation of Belgium, and 1848 by revolutions across Europe </li></ul>
  2. 4. Great Britain <ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy – Queen Victoria </li></ul><ul><li>Huge overseas empire </li></ul><ul><li>“ The sun never sets on the British Empire” </li></ul><ul><li>Richest nation in the world </li></ul><ul><li>“ Splendid Isolation” - Britain abstained from dealings on the European continent after 1858 </li></ul>
  3. 5. Great Britain <ul><li>World’s most powerful navy </li></ul><ul><li>Navy built for Two Power Standard – British fleet must be larger than any other two nation’s combined fleets </li></ul>
  4. 6. Germany <ul><li>Collection of small independent states </li></ul><ul><li>United in 1860’s around one state, Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>United between 1864-1871 by chancellor Otto von Bismarck </li></ul><ul><li>United by fighting wars against Denmark, Austria and France </li></ul><ul><li>New dominant position in Europe resented by other nations </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Bismarckian Alliances <ul><li>Bismarck seeks to keep France isolated </li></ul><ul><li>1873 – DreiKaiserBund (Three Emperors League) </li></ul><ul><li>1879 – Dual Alliance wth Austria – later joined by Italy </li></ul><ul><li>1887 – Reinsurance Treaty with Russia </li></ul>
  6. 8. Year of three Emperors <ul><li>1888 – First German Emperor, William I dies in March </li></ul><ul><li>His son Frederich, dies in June </li></ul><ul><li>New Emperor, William II (Kaiser Wilhelm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young (28) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very headstrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces Bismarck to Resign within 2 years </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. France <ul><li>19 th Century – Government switches from Empire to Monarchy to Republic and back again </li></ul><ul><li>1870 – France loses war to Prussia – loses easternmost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine – Calls for “Revanche” (revenge) </li></ul><ul><li>Left isolated after 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Builds overseas empire second only to Britain </li></ul>
  8. 10. Austria <ul><li>Before rise of Prussia, the most powerful German state </li></ul><ul><li>Territory stretches across Central and Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Contains many minorities, especially poles, Hungarians, and Slavs </li></ul><ul><li>1867 – Dual monarchy established – Gives Hungarians equal voice in Government – Becomes Austria-Hungary </li></ul>
  9. 11. Russia <ul><li>Easternmost great power in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by autocratic Tsars </li></ul><ul><li>1858 - Lose war to British and French on Crimean peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>1864 – Last nation in Europe to outlaw serfdom </li></ul>
  10. 12. Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Controlled all of Turkey, Arabia, and Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled over Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>Known as “Sick Man of Europe” </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting to keep Russia away from Dardanelles & Bosporus straits – Supported by Britain </li></ul>
  11. 13. Overseas Colonies <ul><li>1880’s – European nations rush to stake colonial claims in Africa – “Scramble for Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1884-5 – Bismarck calls Congress of Berlin – European nations agree how to divide Africa among themselves </li></ul><ul><li>1890 – Only 3 independent nations – Liberia, Ethiopia, Boer Republics </li></ul>
  12. 14. Asia <ul><li>Most land taken as colonies by European nations </li></ul><ul><li>Two main independent countries – Japan & China </li></ul>
  13. 15. Japan <ul><li>1867 – Meiji Restoration – Emperor assumes direct rule from warlords (Shoguns) </li></ul><ul><li>1870’s – Japans begins to rapidly industrialize and modernize </li></ul>
  14. 16. China <ul><li>Ruled by Manchu Dynasty and Dowager Empress Tzu-Chi </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly resistant to outside change </li></ul><ul><li>1842 – China loses Opium War to Great Britain – Forced to give up city of Hong Kong and grant Britain a Sphere of Influence in China </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere of influence – European nation has effective control over area in China </li></ul><ul><li>France, Germany & Russia also granted Spheres of Influence </li></ul>
  15. 17. India <ul><li>Small states under control of British Corporation, East India Company </li></ul><ul><li>1857 – Sepoy Mutiny – Put down by British military </li></ul><ul><li>British take direct control – Queen named “Empress of India” </li></ul>
  16. 18. Americas
  17. 19. United States <ul><li>!865 – Destructive Civil War Ends – leads to huge population growth and spreading industrial and agricultural growth </li></ul><ul><li>Growing industrial and world power </li></ul><ul><li>Leads in inventions – Electric light, telegraph, telephone, etc. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Mexico, Central and South America <ul><li>Nations win independence from Spain in 1810-1820’s </li></ul><ul><li>Perennially weak and unstable </li></ul>
  19. 21. ISM’s
  20. 22. Nationalism <ul><li>Growing desire to have all the people of one nation rule themselves in their homeland </li></ul><ul><li>Growing problem for Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire </li></ul>
  21. 23. Colonialism <ul><li>Exploitation of native peoples for mother countries’ benefit </li></ul>