1915  -1916
World Wide War <ul><li>War spreads to Asia & Africa with Colonial forces and other allies (i.e. Japan allying with the Ent...
A Plan to knock the Turks out <ul><li>Winston Churchill proposes plan in late 1914 to invade Ottoman Empire near capital c...
Gallipoli <ul><li>April 1915 – British land ANZAC forces on Gallipoli peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Turks in much greater st...
Despair in the East <ul><li>Russia continues losses from Tannenburg </li></ul><ul><li>November 1914 – Russians defeated by...
America nearly enters the war <ul><li>May 1915 – British liner Lusitania sunk by German submarine off coast of Ireland </l...
A Different kind of Naval War <ul><li>German Navy kept in harbor by British blockade </li></ul><ul><li>German naval activi...
Russia in Turmoil <ul><li>Tsar Nicholas goes to the front to take personal command in 1916 </li></ul><ul><li>Tsarina Alexa...
Italy Joins the War <ul><li>1915 – Italy joins the war on the side of the Entente, against her former allies Germany & Aus...
Serbia Defeated <ul><li>1916 – Austria launches full-scale attack on Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia conquered, Government...
New Weapons <ul><li>1915 – Poison Gas first used by Germans at Ypres, Belgium – Devastatingly effective until the developm...
“ THEY SHALL NOT PASS” <ul><li>1916 – Germany launches offensive to capture forts surrounding French city of Verdun </li><...
The Somme <ul><li>British anxious to take pressure away from French at Verdun </li></ul><ul><li>Late June – British shell ...
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Lecture 4

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Lecture 4

  1. 1. 1915 -1916
  2. 2. World Wide War <ul><li>War spreads to Asia & Africa with Colonial forces and other allies (i.e. Japan allying with the Entente) fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Japan seizes control of German Sphere of influence in China </li></ul><ul><li>German colonial forces fight successful defensive campaign against British colonial forces in East Africa (now Kenya) </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Plan to knock the Turks out <ul><li>Winston Churchill proposes plan in late 1914 to invade Ottoman Empire near capital city of Istanbul, knocking them out of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill’s plan has some supporters, many enemies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gallipoli <ul><li>April 1915 – British land ANZAC forces on Gallipoli peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Turks in much greater strength than reported </li></ul><ul><li>Battle turns into a stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>British forces evacuated in January 1916 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Despair in the East <ul><li>Russia continues losses from Tannenburg </li></ul><ul><li>November 1914 – Russians defeated by Austria at Battle of the Masurian Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Germans launch successful offensive into Poland in 1915 </li></ul>
  6. 6. America nearly enters the war <ul><li>May 1915 – British liner Lusitania sunk by German submarine off coast of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 Americans die </li></ul><ul><li>US demands apology, and receives one from Germany, who pledges to stop Unrestricted Submarine Warfare </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Different kind of Naval War <ul><li>German Navy kept in harbor by British blockade </li></ul><ul><li>German naval activity mostly done by submarines (U-Boats) </li></ul><ul><li>1916 – German Navy gets out of port to confront British fleet off coast of Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Jutland is a draw, but German fleet returns to port and does not threaten battle again </li></ul>
  8. 8. Russia in Turmoil <ul><li>Tsar Nicholas goes to the front to take personal command in 1916 </li></ul><ul><li>Tsarina Alexandra takes over day-to-day running of Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandra under the influence of Siberian Mystic, Grigori Rasputin, who was able to control Hemophilia of Heir to Russian throne, Alexei </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandra hated for her background (German) and her reliance on Rasputin </li></ul>
  9. 9. Italy Joins the War <ul><li>1915 – Italy joins the war on the side of the Entente, against her former allies Germany & Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Army fights Austrians in the Alps </li></ul>
  10. 10. Serbia Defeated <ul><li>1916 – Austria launches full-scale attack on Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia conquered, Government forced to flee </li></ul>
  11. 11. New Weapons <ul><li>1915 – Poison Gas first used by Germans at Ypres, Belgium – Devastatingly effective until the development of Gas Masks </li></ul><ul><li>1916 – Battle of the Somme – British first use armored, tracked vehicles, still known by their code name – “(water) Tanks” </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to breakdowns, very short operational range & too few numbers to be effective </li></ul>
  12. 12. “ THEY SHALL NOT PASS” <ul><li>1916 – Germany launches offensive to capture forts surrounding French city of Verdun </li></ul><ul><li>German intent – “To Bleed France White” </li></ul><ul><li>French Commander, Henri Petain, leads resistance, famous quote </li></ul><ul><li>Total casualties for 11-month battle – 750,000 men </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Somme <ul><li>British anxious to take pressure away from French at Verdun </li></ul><ul><li>Late June – British shell German lines for 1 week </li></ul><ul><li>July 1 – British lose 60,000 men on the first day of battle - Commander refuses to adjust strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Total casualties for 4 ½ month battle – over 1 million men </li></ul><ul><li>British gain only 2 miles of territory – 2 men lost for every centimeter </li></ul>

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