League of nations student booklet


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League of nations student booklet

  1. 1. The League of Nations What you will learn: The FOUR aims of the League of Nations [SIDE]. How many members the League had in 1919 and in the 1930s. The names of THREE countries who weren’t members of the League (and why). The FOUR main members of the League. FOUR strengths of the League. THREE weaknesses of the League. FOUR powers of the League. EIGHT parts of the League’s organisation. NINE successes of the League in the 1920s. FOUR failures of the League in the 1920s. TWO failures of the League in the 1930s – and their effect on the League. SEVEN reasons why the League failed in the 1930s [WAS DUMB].You must do the following written work:A spider diagram showing the main aims of the League.Written notes on the League’s powers.Written notes on the League’s organisation.An essay: ‘How strong was the League of Nations?’Written notes on the work done by the League.Written notes on Manchuria, 1931Written notes on Abyssinia, 1935A 35-word ‘last word’ comment on the League.Pass the End of Unit Test!
  2. 2. Source A The League of NationsIt is not enoughjust to win the war. The League of Nations was set up because President WilsonWe must win it in wanted this more than anything else.such a way as to He wanted the League to be a kind of ‘worldkeep the future parliament’, where nations would sort out their arguments.peace of the world. He hoped this would stop wars. But Wilson wanted to doPresident Wilson, more than just stop war; he wanted to make the world atalking in 1918. better place. He wanted the League to do things to improve people’s lives and jobs. He wanted to improve public health, and to end slavery. Wilson also hoped that the League would persuadeTasks the nations to agree to disarmament – to put down their1. Work in threes. weapons. That would make war impossible.Imagine that you areWoodrow Wilson, Finally, Wilson thought that the League of Nationstalking to Clemenceau could enforce the Treaty of Versailles, and persuadeand Lloyd George. countries to keep the promises they had made.Tell them about youridea for the League ofNations, what it Taskwould do, and how it Draw a spider diagram of the FOUR aims of the League of Nations.would work. Write a Were the League’s aims impossible, do you think?.short speech anddeliver this to theclass – one r towpoints from each America Pulls Outperson. But when Wilson got back home to the United States, the2. Study Source B American Senate refused to join the League.What effect did the Americans did not want to get dragged into otherartists think America’s countries’ problems. This damaged the League a great deal.refusal to join theLeague have?Source B‘The Gap in the Bridge’ – a British cartoon of 1919 – shows America refusing to join the League. 2
  3. 3. Strengths & Source A – Powers 1. Covenant (in the League’s Covenant,Weaknesses especially Article 10, all members had promised to keep the peace). Forty-two countries joined the League 2. Condemnation (the League could tell a country it was doing wrong).at the start. In the 1930sabout 60 3. Arbitration (the League could offer to decidecountries were members. This made between two countries).the League seem strong. 4. Sanctions (stopping trade). However, the most powerfulcountries in the world were notmembers. The USAdid not want tojoin. The Russians refused to join – they Source B – Organisationwere Communists and distrusted 1. Assembly (the main meeting o the League –Britain and France. Germanywas not all members met once a year). Its main problem was that decisions had to beallowed to join. Without these three unanimous, which was very difficult tobig powers, the League was weak. achieve. Britain and France were the main 2. Council (a small group of the more members, helped by Italy and Japan; important nations – Britain, France, Italy and they were quite powerful countries. Japan plus some other countries – met 4–5 times a year). Also, the League had four powers it 3. Agencies (committees of the League): could use to make countries do as it Court of International Justice (for small wanted (see Source A). Theoretically, disputes). the League was allowed to use military Health (to improve world health). force, but the League did not have International Labour Organisation (to try to get fair wages). an army of its own – so if a country Slavery (to end slavery) ignored it, in the end, there was Refugees. nothing the League could do. 4. Secretariat (was supposed to organise the The main strength of the League was League, but failed). that it had been set up by the Treaty of Versailles, and agreed by everybody at the conference. The biggest weakness was thatthe League’s organisation was amuddle (see Source B). The differentparts of the League were supposed toact together; but in a crisis, no-onecould agree.Tasks1. Using the seven sentences in bold in thepassage above, create side-by-side lists ofthe League’s ‘strengths’ and ‘weaknesses’.2 People at the time used all these phrasesto explain how they thought the Leaguewould influence countries: Collective Security 3
  4. 4. Community of Power Moral Persuasion.For each, discuss and write down what youthink people meant.3. Do you think the League had any chanceof keeping world peace? Source C ‘Moral Persuasion’ – a cartoon of 1936. What was it saying about the League? 4
  5. 5. Did the League stop wars in the 1920s?The main aim of the League of Nations was to stop wars. In the 1920s, there weremany small disputes between countries, which the League tried to solve. This spreadlooks at just two disputes (you will need to research other incidents). Did the Leaguemanage to stop wars in the 1920s? Decide if you think the League was a success ora failure.Corfu, 1923 Bulgaria, 1925The Dispute: The Dispute:An Italian general was killed while he Some Greek soldiers were killed in a smallwas doing some work for the League in fight on the border between Greece andGreece. The Italian leader Mussolini was Bulgaria. The Greeks were angry. Theyangry with the Greeks. He invaded the invaded Bulgaria.Greek island of Corfu. Bulgaria asked the League to help.The Greeks asked the League to help. What the League did:What the League did: The Council of the League met. ItThe Council of the League met. It condemned the Geeks, and told them tocondemned Mussolini, and told him to leave Bulgaria.leave Corfu. It told the Greeks to give some What happened:money to the League. The Bulgarian government sent orders to its army not to fight back.What happened: The Greeks did as the League said.Mussolini refused to accept its decision. They left Bulgaria.He refused to leave Corfu. The League changed its decision. Ittold Greece to apologise to Mussolini,and to pay the money to Italy. The Greeks did as the League said.Then Mussolini gave Corfu back toGreece.Tasks1. Discuss as a whole class:a. Was the League successful in Corfu?b. Was the League successful in Bulgaria?2. In 1925, Greece complained that there Source Aseemed to be one set of rules for small A British cartoon of 1925 shows Greece andcountries such as Greece, and a different Bulgaria fighting – like Tweedle-dum andset of rules for big countries such as Italy. Tweedle-dee in the story Alice in Wonderland. 5
  6. 6. Do you agree? The League, like the dove of peace, stops the3. Did the League’s actions add to its fight.standing, or detract from it, do you think? 6
  7. 7. Was the League successful in the 1920s? This spread looks at the League’s work: boxes a–m on this page Tasks 1 Divide boxes a–m up into ‘successes’ and describe some of the work done ‘failure’s. Overall, was the League a by the League in the 1920s. success or a failure in the 1920s? 2 Divide up the boxes again, this time into The League of Nations had four the four kinds of work done by the League. aims: Stopping wars,1. Stop wars, Improving lives and jobs,2. Improve people’s lives and jobs, Disarmament,3. Disarmament, Enforcing the Treaty of Versailles.4. Enforce the Treaty of Versailles. Share your answers as a whole class. Copy up notes on ‘The Work of the League in the In the last spread, you looked at 1920s’, under the four sub-headings. Colour the League’s work to stop wars.. the titles: one colour for the League’s You will be able to decide if you ‘successes’, another colour for its ‘failures’. think the League was a success or a failure. h. Jobs The International Labour Organisation failed a. Bulgaria (1925) to persuade countries to adopt a 48-hour Greece obeyed the League’s orders to week. pull out of Bulgaria in 1925. i. Economic problems b. Poland (1920) The League sent economics experts to help Poland took land from Russia, breaking Austria and Hungary. the Treaty of Versailles. The Poles ignored the League’s order to stop j. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Sixty-five countries signed the treaty to end c. Slaves war – but just ignored it. The League attacked slave traders in Africa and Burma and freed 200,000 slaves. k. Refugees (1922) The League set up camps and fed Turkish refugees. d. Disease The League worked to prevent malaria and leprosy. l. Corfu (1923) Mussolini ignored the League’s orders to pull out of Corfu in 1923, and made Greece e. Disarmament (1932) pay money to Italy. Disarmament talks failed, because Germany demanded as many weapons as everyone else. m. Drugs The League closed down four big companies which were selling drugs. f. Prisoners of War The League took home half a million World War One prisoners of war. 7
  8. 8. g. Reparations (1921)When the Germans refused to pay,France and Britain invaded Germany andmade them pay.8
  9. 9. The League’s Failures Manchuria, 1931in the 1930sIn the 1920s, the League ofNations had been quitesuccessful. In the 1930s, it failedterribly. This spread looks at theLeague’s two main failures in the1930s – in Manchuria andAbyssinia.By 1935, most countries did not The Dispute: (pthink that the League could keep In the 1930s there was a world-the peace. wide economic depression. Japan When Hitler began to break tried tp overcome the depressionthe Treaty of Versailles in the by building up an empire.1930s, the League was powerless In 1932, the Japanese armyto stop him (this is the next topic invaded Manchuria, threw out theyou will study). Chinese, and set up their own The league failed, and the government there.only way to stop Hitler was a China asked the League to help.Second World War. What the League did: The League sent officials to study the problem (this took a year). In February 1933 it ordered Japan to leave Manchuria.Source A What happened:A British cartoon of 1933 shows Japan Japan refused to leave Manchuria.trampling all over the League, whilst Instead, Japan left the League.Britain powders her nose. Other Many countries had importantcartoons made the same point. trading links with Japan. The League could not agree on sanctions or even a ban on weapons sales. Britain and France did not want a war, so nothing was done. The Japanese stayed in Manchuria. The League had failed.Tasks1. Read the stories about Manchuriaand Abyssinia. From the stories, can 9
  10. 10. you work out WHY the League failedthere?2. Read Sources B–D. Did theAbyssinian crisis ‘kill’ the League?3. Who gained most from theManchurian and Abyssinian crises?10
  11. 11. Abyssinia, 1935 Source B The crisis was fatal to the League. Nobody took it seriously again. They got ready for the Second World War. Written by the historian JR Western (1971). Source C After Manchuria and Abyssinia, people decided that it was no longer any use putting their hopes in the League. Written by the historian J Joll (1976).The Dispute: (pages 205-207)Mussolini got ready to invadeAbyssinia (Ethiopia). He wanted war Source Dand glory. The League died in 1935. One day it was a powerful bodyAbyssinia asked the League to help. imposing sanctions, the next day it was a useless fraud, everybody running away from itWhat the League did: as quickly as possible. HitlerThe League talked to Mussolini – buthe used the time to send an army to watched. Written by the historian AJP TaylorAfrica. (1966). The League suggested a plan togive part of Abyssinia to Italy.What happened:Mussolini ignored the League, andinvaded Abyssinia. The League banned weaponssales, and put sanctions on rubberand metal.It did nothing else – in fact Britainand France secretly agreed to giveAbyssinia to Italy.Italy conquered Abyssinia Source E A British cartoon of 1935 showsThe League had failed. international politics like a stage musical. Britain and France sing: ‘We don’t want you to fight, but by jingo if you do, 11
  12. 12. We will probably issue a joint memorandum Suggesting a mild disapproval of you.’12
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