AP Bio Ch 1 PowerPoint


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Introduction to Life on Earth

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  • Life on Earth is confined to a thin film encompassing Earth's surface: the biosphere. Earth, seen from the Moon, is an oasis of life in our solar system.
  • AP Bio Ch 1 PowerPoint

    1. 1. Introduction to Life on Earth
    2. 2. Levels of Biological Organization I Subatomic Electron Neutron Proton Nitrogen Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen DNA Glucose Water Nucleus Chloroplast Mitochondrion Nerve Cell Atomic Molecular Organelle Cellular O H H CH 2 OH
    3. 3. Levels of Biological Organization II Tissue Nervous Tissue Brain Nervous System Pronghorn Antelope Organ (Organ) System Organism
    4. 4. Levels of Biological Organization III Population Herd of Pronghorns Hawk Water Earth’s surface Community Ecosystem Biosphere Pronghorns Hawk Grass Pronghorns Snake Bushes Soil Air Snake
    5. 5. Principles Underlying All Science <ul><li>All events can be attributed to natural causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations don’t invoke deity (sorry creationists) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But should not specifically exclude deity (since we can’t prove it either way) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural laws apply at all places and all times </li></ul><ul><li>People perceive events in similar ways </li></ul>
    6. 10. The Scientific Method <ul><li>Make observation (something unexpected happens) </li></ul><ul><li>Propose hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential explanation for observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must lead to “if/then” predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design & execute experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled test of predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to challenge hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusion (supported or not) </li></ul>
    7. 11. Scientific Theories <ul><li>A general statement about how things operate </li></ul><ul><li>Derived through inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Has survived thorough challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Never permanent or final “truth” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always provisional (tentative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always subject to change or replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to propose hypotheses ( deductive reasoning ) </li></ul>
    8. 12. Evolution: Unifying Theories of Biology <ul><li>All species evolved from previous species </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of origin that emerged from inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary theory emerges from data (true science) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creationism imposes itself on data (not science but doctrine of faith) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extremely vital web linking all biological information </li></ul>
    9. 13. <ul><li>When environment changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species must adapt to new conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some can’t and go extinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced changes 65 mya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were unable to adapt fast enough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Globally extinct </li></ul></ul></ul>Changing Conditions
    10. 14. Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Complex, organized & made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Must get materials & energy </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis maintains internal conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to evolve </li></ul>
    11. 15. <ul><li>Salt; Organized but simple </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans; Complex but unorganized </li></ul><ul><li>Water flea; Organized and complex </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of organization in living things </li></ul>Characteristics: 1. Complex, Organized, Cells
    12. 16. Characteristics: 2. Respond to Stimuli <ul><li>Changes in internal environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood sugar level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in external environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek food and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid bitterness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants grow toward light </li></ul></ul>
    13. 17. Characteristics: 3. Homeostasis <ul><li>Organized systems disintegrate </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing disintegration requires energy </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis means “staying the same” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweating when hot; shivering when cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirsting when water is low </li></ul></ul>
    14. 18. Characteristics: 4. Acquire Materials and Energy <ul><li>Homeostasis requires energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposes natural trend to disintegration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtained from external source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis requires physical repair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts break down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New materials required for repair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food supplies material and energy </li></ul>
    15. 19. Characteristics: 5. Growth <ul><li>Violates homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostasis “staying the same” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth = homeostasis plus extra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organism grows in size/mass </li></ul><ul><li>Must acquire more than needed for homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically programmed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul>
    16. 20. Characteristics: 6. Reproduction <ul><li>Reproduce themselves in kind (heredity) </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuation of parents’ genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic info stored in DNA chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offspring similar to both parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offspring different from either parent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple code with complex error correction system </li></ul></ul>
    17. 21. <ul><li>Genetic composition of population changes (evolves) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential survival (natural selection) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Selects” advantageous adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The more time, the more change </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually become much different </li></ul>Characteristics: 7. Evolution DNA
    18. 22. <ul><li>Made of Cells (well, at least 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain/Use Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Grow/Develop </li></ul>Mr. D’s Characteristics of Life
    19. 23. Categorizing the Diversity of Life I <ul><li>Domains Bacteria & Archaea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly unicellular </li></ul></ul>Domain Eukarya is eukaryotic <ul><ul><li>And other organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells with distinct membrane-bound nucleus </li></ul></ul>
    20. 24. Categorizing the Diversity of Life II <ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista unicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom Fungi multicellular, cell wall, heterotroph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom Plantae multicellular, cell wall, autotroph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom Animalia multicellular, heterotroph, no cell wall </li></ul></ul>
    21. 25. Variations in Energy Acquisition <ul><li>Plantae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture light energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use to make food from carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic autotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most others: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat other organisms to get food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some absorb particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others ingest bites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul></ul>
    22. 26. The End