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Notes yb lab 3 and lab 4 heat energy on the move and its just a phase

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Notes yb lab 3 and lab 4 heat energy on the move and its just a phase

These notes are for Heat and Thermal Energy Labs (Formerly the Yellow LabGuide)

These notes are for Heat and Thermal Energy Labs (Formerly the Yellow LabGuide)

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Notes yb lab 3 and lab 4 heat energy on the move and its just a phase

1. 1. Investigating Heat and Temperature
2. 2. Lab Stations:Lab Stations:  Lab 3: “Energy on the Move” Pages 23 - 42  Lab 4: “It’s Just a Phase” Pages 43 - 55
3. 3. Energy on the Move:Energy on the Move: Investigating Energy TransferInvestigating Energy Transfer
4. 4. Objectives:Objectives:  The student will:  Compare and Contrast the transfer of energy by conduction, convection and radiation while providing and explaining common examples of each
5. 5. Objectives:Objectives:  Investigate and understand practical and technological applications of thermal energy  Explain how a coiled thermostat works
6. 6. Key Terms:Key Terms:  Thermal Conductor  Thermal Insulator
7. 7. Thermal Conductor  Any substance that conducts, absorbs energy and increases temperature quickly allowing thermal energy to collect and pass through it
8. 8. Thermal Insulator  Any substance that does not allow the transfer of thermal energy or impedes thermal energy transfer
9. 9. Essential Learnings  Materials that allow energy to move through them are called thermal conductors  Metals generally conduct thermal energy well but at different rates  Depending on the metal’s density
10. 10. Essential Learnings  Convection is the transfer of thermal energy within fluids and gases (air is considered a fluid for this purpose) by the movement of molecules from place to place.  Molecules carry the energy with them
11. 11. Essential Learnings  The circular motion of fluids (related to temperature) due to density differences is known as convection currents
12. 12. Essential Learnings  Radiation is the transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves  Radiation travels in transverse waves  This type of energy does not require matter to transfer
13. 13. P4P4 It’s Just a Phase:It’s Just a Phase: Investigating Phase ChangesInvestigating Phase Changes
14. 14. Objectives  The student will illustrate and explain the results of the addition and subtraction of thermal energy on the motion of molecules
15. 15. Objectives  The student will:  Create and examine a temperature graph of phase changes  Label each phase change  Determine Freezing, melting, condensation and boiling points from a graph
16. 16. Key Terms:Key Terms:  Phase Change  Freezing Point  Melting Point  Boiling Point  Vaporization  Condensation
17. 17. Phase Change  When matter transforms from a solid to a liquid or to a gas  Ice  Water  Water Vapor
18. 18. Freezing Point  The temperature or point when a liquid becomes a solid  Water  Ice
19. 19. Melting Point  The temperature or point when a solid substance turns into a liquid  Ice  water
20. 20. Freezing & Melting  Melting and Freezing points are actually the same temperature!
21. 21. Boiling Point  The maximum temperature at which a liquid can remain in liquid form before turning to vapor or gas
22. 22. Vaporization  When a liquid becomes a gas  Water  Steam (water vapor)
23. 23. Condensation Point  The temperature or point when vapor becomes a liquid  Vapor  Cloud  rain
24. 24. Boiling & Condensation  Boiling and Condensation points are actually the same temperature!
25. 25. Essential Learnings:  Vaporization is the change of state from liquid to gas  Condensation is the change of state from gas to liquid  Both processes take place at the boiling point of a substance
26. 26. Essential Learnings:  The melting/freezing point and boiling/condensing point for a pure substance are characteristic properties  Pure water melts/freezes at 0o C, and it boils/vaporizes at 100o C at 1 atmosphere air pressure (sea level)  Higher above sea level
27. 27. Essential Learnings:  As thermal energy is added to a system the temperature does not always increase  Temperature will not increase during a phase change  This is because the energy is needed to break down the physical forces that bond the molecules to one another
28. 28. Essential Learnings:  Phase changes are indicated by a horizontal or flat line with no slope, called a plateau  Water has two plateaus during heating  One at freezing(melting point)  One at vaporization (boiling point)
29. 29. Essential Learnings:  All solids are “Frozen”  Freezing is not necessarily “cold’  The freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid  For a pure substance freezing point is a characteristic property and is independent of the amount of the substance
30. 30. Essential Learnings:  A substances’ cooling graph shows a plateau at condensation point and the freezing point  The temperature will remain constant during the entire phase change  After the phase change cooling continues until thermal equilibrium is reached