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Notes lab 05 06 nuts & bolts discovering the elements


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Notes lab 05 06 nuts & bolts discovering the elements

  1. 1. One of the most importantunifying principles of ChemistryPatterns that develop in theelements
  2. 2. A table showing the elements andrelated information about them
  3. 3. Each box in the periodic tablerepresents one element▪It contains▪Atomic Number▪Symbol▪Average Atomic Mass
  4. 4. Arranged in columns called groupsor families , they are organized bythe number of outer energy level/valence electrons.
  5. 5. 18 vertical columns divided into 8-9Groups or FamiliesThe number of valence electrons orthe reactivity level determine whichgroup an element belongs to (In most cases the singles digit in eachgroup number indicates the number ofvalence electrons)
  6. 6. A horizontal row of elements in ThePeriodic Table. In most families, the reactivity of theelements in the same family increasesas the period increases or moves downthe chart.
  7. 7. The smallest part of a compound, orelement.A molecule must contain two or moreatoms from the Periodic Table ofElements.▪CO2 = Carbon Dioxide▪CO = Carbon Monoxide▪Au2 = Gold
  8. 8. The atoms on the periodic tableare called elements.There are more than 110 knownelements.▪No element with an atomic numbergreater than 92 is found naturally inmeasurable quantities on earth
  9. 9. Element can also refer to a puremolecule.That is when a molecule has only1 element in its composition▪O2=Oxygen▪Au2= Gold
  10. 10. When two or more differentelements combine (bond) theyform a compound Examples▪H2O = Water▪C6H12O6= Glucose▪CO2= Carbon Dioxide
  11. 11. Two classifications of compounds▪Organic▪Inorganic
  12. 12. A compound that contains acombination of Hydrogen (H),Carbon (C) and Oxygen (O)andderived from a living thing Example▪ Glucose C6H12O6
  13. 13.  A compound that does not containCarbon. If it does the carbon has not comefrom a previously living thing Examples▪ Carbon Monoxide (CO)▪ Carbon Dioxide (CO2)▪ Carbonates (CaCO)
  14. 14. The largest section located on theleft side of the “stair-step line” ofperiodic table.
  15. 15. These elements are▪Shiny▪Malleable▪Ductile▪Conductive▪High melting point (temperature)
  16. 16. Located to the right of the “stair-step line” on the table.
  17. 17. These elements are:▪Non-conductive▪No luster or not shiny, but dull
  18. 18. Found along the stair-step linebetween the metals and nonmetals.A lot like metals but not exactly
  19. 19. Metalloids▪Have qualities of metals andnonmetals▪Brittle , non-ductile and non-malleable
  20. 20. Hydrogen & Helium Hydrogen▪Classified as part of Group 1 onlybecause it has only 1 valenceelectron.▪However it has its own unique set ofproperties that set it apart from theother members of the group
  21. 21.  Helium▪Classified as part of Group 8 mainlybecause it has no reactivity like all ofthe elements in group 8.▪Helium has only 2 valence electronsrather that the 8 all the othermembers of this group do.
  22. 22. Dimitri MendaleevThe “Father of the Periodic Table”,He collected all the informationavailable in the nineteenth centuryabout the elements
  23. 23. Arranged the elements byincreasing atomic mass and founda repeating pattern in the physicaland chemical properties
  24. 24. Eventually the table was rearrangedby atomic number as it was moreaccurate that way