Notes lab 04b the atom structure


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Notes lab 04b the atom structure

  1. 1. Each element is pure, it has its ownunique type of atom, which isidentified by its atomic number.(1 – 118)Everything is made up from theseelements or combinations thereof
  2. 2. The smallest particle of an elementis an atom. The atom is the basic building blockof matter It usually has no electric charge orhas a neutral charge The atom is actually mostly emptyspace!
  3. 3. The atom consists of 3 subatomicparticles that differ in theirlocation, electrical charge andrelative mass.▪Proton▪ Neutron▪Electron
  4. 4. The Proton Found in the nucleus of the atom.The largest particle, almost equalin mass to the Neutron.It is a positively charged particle(p+)
  5. 5. The Neutron Also found in the nucleus.Almost equal in mass to theProton.It has no charge (n0) it is NEUTRAL
  6. 6. The Electron Found outside the nucleus in the”Electron Cloud” and also in theoutermost energy level “The Valence” Much smaller than the proton orneutron, having almost no mass. It is negatively charged (e-)
  7. 7. Show Videos on Atoms
  8. 8.  The outer energy levelelectrons for each typeof atom. Number from1 – 8. They create a type of“shell” around the atomthat allows for atomicbonding. At 8 valence electrons,an atom can not bond
  9. 9. Every atom hasa name andcorrespondingnumber called“The AtomicNumber” on the“Periodic Tableof Elements”The AtomicNumber is equalto the number ofprotons in theatom’s nucleus.It can’t everchange
  10. 10. The number ofProtons in thenucleus is also(99.99% of thetime) the same asthe number oftotal electrons inthe electron cloud+ valenceThis is why atomshave no electricalcharge.An equal numberof positive andnegative chargesproduces aneutral charge
  11. 11. The mass of anatom (AtomicMass) comesfrom the Nucleusof the atomIn the nucleus, onewill find all theprotons andpossibly neutronsEach proton has amass of 1 AtomicMass Unit, eachNeutron also has amass of 1 AMU
  12. 12. The list of atoms and their properties arepresented on the Periodic Table ofElementsEach atom has a box with a uniquesymbol to represent it on the PeriodicTableThe Symbol uses a capital letter andsometimes a lower case letter torepresent each atom
  13. 13. (Average)AtomicMass
  14. 14. How do I find out the number of valenceelectrons? Just look at the Group/Familynumber’s singles digit. The one’s digit in the group number isthe number of valence electrons foreach atom in that group/family
  15. 15. How do I find the number of Neutrons inthe nucleus of an atom? Round the atomic mass to an evennumber (Mass Number) Subtract the atomic number from themass number