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Early Native American Exploration and 
Culture Areas 
1. Why did early Native Americans migrate and 
explore? 
2. What was life like in North America before the 
Age of European Exploration? 
Textbook reference: Ch.2 sec.1-2
1. The Coastal Route Theory and The Land 
Bridge Theory 
• The last ice age most likely occurred beginning 100,000 years ago and ended around 
10,000 years ago. 
• Water from the oceans froze and become part of sheets of ice called glaciers that 
covered much of North America 
• Land Bridge Theory- 
• The lowering of sea levels allowed early hunter-gatherers to follow animals migrating 
from Asia to North America on the continental shelf that connects the two continents. 
• A migration route opened up in central Canada when the ice started to melt. This was 
the opening of the door that allowed early Native Americans to travel south into the 
rest of North America and later South America. This route in Canada is referred to as 
the “ice free corridor.” 
• Coastal Route Theory- Why do we have other theories besides the land bridge theory? 
• Seafaring hunters followed the coastline from Asia to North America and continued 
down the coast into South America without using the “ice free corridor.” 
• Archeological evidence such as human remains and tools found in South America are 
older than the opening of the “ice free corridor.” This suggests that the Bering land 
bridge migration route could not possibly be the only route for exploration.
lL
2. Culture Areas of North America 
• Culture The way of life, customs, and beliefs of a particular group 
• Native American Culture Areas- Modern social scientists have grouped Native 
American societies into various cultural groups according to the area of North 
America they lived in 
• There are many factors that influenced culture, therefore creating differences 
when compared to other Native American societies 
• Resources 
• Land 
• Climate 
• Food 
• Housing 
• Art 
• Religion 
• Technology
The Tribes of Native American Culture Areas
There are numerous differences 
between the Native American 
tribes that lived in North America. 
• Tribe- a community of people that share 
common customs, language, and rituals 
• The following slides will discuss a few 
examples of the cultural differences that occur 
as a result of geographical variety
Housing 
What can you tell about a culture group by looking 
at housing? 
How are adaptations to climate and differences in 
culture reflected in housing? 
How is resource availability reflected in housing? 
• Pit house- 
• Teepee- 
• Long House- 
• Adobe Pueblo-
Culture 
What can you tell about a group by looking at 
culture? 
How are adaptations to climate and differences in 
customs reflected in culture? 
How is resource availability reflected in culture? 
• League of the Iroquois- 
• Sachem- 
• Potlatch- 
• Kachinas-
The League of the Iroquois
Sachem
Potlatch
Kachina
I CAN 
• I can explain the difference between the 
coastal route theory and the land bridge mass 
migration theory and describe why there are 
different theories 
• I can Compare and contrast the Native 
American culture groups of North America by 
describing specific examples such as housing, 
and other aspects of Native American life
Sources: 
Maps: 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Settlement_of_the_Americas#mediaviewer/File:Journal.pone.0001596.g004.png 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Nordamerikanische_Kulturareale_en.png 
http://www.maps/PrenticeHall_native_amer_culture_regions_1450.jpg 
Housing 
http://api.ning.com/files/wFzHvoj3NXlYziK*hnIAj5jiJsRBlzyLhB8Pn2Z-TNb3o06WGAaYyXzTqDwnPcG6UR7V9qoE1lnLKufzl* 
hm8RBYaxT9Ahc8/NativeAmericanDwellings.jpg 
League of Iroquois: 
http://community.weber.edu/WeberReads/iroquois%20map.jpg 
Sachem: 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/Sachem_Daniel_Nimham.jpg 
Potlatch: 
http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/ap/a/a095524-v6.jpg 
Kachina: 
http://joshuaarens.com/tag/hopi/ 
http://www.alltribes.com/kcenter/kachina-dolls/types-of-kachina-dolls.html

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NA Culture Areas & Exploration

  • 1. Early Native American Exploration and Culture Areas 1. Why did early Native Americans migrate and explore? 2. What was life like in North America before the Age of European Exploration? Textbook reference: Ch.2 sec.1-2
  • 2. 1. The Coastal Route Theory and The Land Bridge Theory • The last ice age most likely occurred beginning 100,000 years ago and ended around 10,000 years ago. • Water from the oceans froze and become part of sheets of ice called glaciers that covered much of North America • Land Bridge Theory- • The lowering of sea levels allowed early hunter-gatherers to follow animals migrating from Asia to North America on the continental shelf that connects the two continents. • A migration route opened up in central Canada when the ice started to melt. This was the opening of the door that allowed early Native Americans to travel south into the rest of North America and later South America. This route in Canada is referred to as the “ice free corridor.” • Coastal Route Theory- Why do we have other theories besides the land bridge theory? • Seafaring hunters followed the coastline from Asia to North America and continued down the coast into South America without using the “ice free corridor.” • Archeological evidence such as human remains and tools found in South America are older than the opening of the “ice free corridor.” This suggests that the Bering land bridge migration route could not possibly be the only route for exploration.
  • 3. lL
  • 4.
  • 5. 2. Culture Areas of North America • Culture The way of life, customs, and beliefs of a particular group • Native American Culture Areas- Modern social scientists have grouped Native American societies into various cultural groups according to the area of North America they lived in • There are many factors that influenced culture, therefore creating differences when compared to other Native American societies • Resources • Land • Climate • Food • Housing • Art • Religion • Technology
  • 6.
  • 7. The Tribes of Native American Culture Areas
  • 8. There are numerous differences between the Native American tribes that lived in North America. • Tribe- a community of people that share common customs, language, and rituals • The following slides will discuss a few examples of the cultural differences that occur as a result of geographical variety
  • 9. Housing What can you tell about a culture group by looking at housing? How are adaptations to climate and differences in culture reflected in housing? How is resource availability reflected in housing? • Pit house- • Teepee- • Long House- • Adobe Pueblo-
  • 10.
  • 11. Culture What can you tell about a group by looking at culture? How are adaptations to climate and differences in customs reflected in culture? How is resource availability reflected in culture? • League of the Iroquois- • Sachem- • Potlatch- • Kachinas-
  • 12. The League of the Iroquois
  • 16.
  • 17. I CAN • I can explain the difference between the coastal route theory and the land bridge mass migration theory and describe why there are different theories • I can Compare and contrast the Native American culture groups of North America by describing specific examples such as housing, and other aspects of Native American life
  • 18. Sources: Maps: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Settlement_of_the_Americas#mediaviewer/File:Journal.pone.0001596.g004.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Nordamerikanische_Kulturareale_en.png http://www.maps/PrenticeHall_native_amer_culture_regions_1450.jpg Housing http://api.ning.com/files/wFzHvoj3NXlYziK*hnIAj5jiJsRBlzyLhB8Pn2Z-TNb3o06WGAaYyXzTqDwnPcG6UR7V9qoE1lnLKufzl* hm8RBYaxT9Ahc8/NativeAmericanDwellings.jpg League of Iroquois: http://community.weber.edu/WeberReads/iroquois%20map.jpg Sachem: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/Sachem_Daniel_Nimham.jpg Potlatch: http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/ap/a/a095524-v6.jpg Kachina: http://joshuaarens.com/tag/hopi/ http://www.alltribes.com/kcenter/kachina-dolls/types-of-kachina-dolls.html