Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Consciousness,
Sleep & Dreams
Section 1: Rhythms and Consciousness
Learning Goals
•Students should be able to answer the following:
1. What is conscious...
When we are awake we are?

In a state of Consciousness
Our awareness of ourselves
and our surroundings.
Conscious

Sleep

...
Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressants

Narcotics

Dreams...
Peter Tripp..

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressants

Na...
How important is sleep to
humans? 
Sleep is vital to mental health. 
Peter Tripp found out that if a person
is deprived ...
Consciousness
Sleep is a state of altered consciousness,
characterized by certain patterns of
brain activity. 

What is c...
•9.1 What are the different levels of consciousness?

Awareness of
everything
going
on
inside
and
outside
of you

onscious...
Consciousness
• Waking:
Thoughts,
feelings,
sensations are
clear

• Altered state:
Shift in quality or
pattern of mental
a...
Consciousness
Consciousness can range from alertness to
nonalertness. 
People who are fully aware with their
attention fo...
Freud’s Levels of Consciousness

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulant...
Consciousness according to…

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

D...
Processing
LO 9.2

What is the difference between explicit and implicit processing?

• Explicit processing - processing
th...
Stages of Sleep:

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressants
...
Necessity of Sleep
•9.4 What theories exist about the function of sleep?

•Circadian rhythm:
24 hour bodily rhythm

•Supra...
Circadian Rhythm

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressants
...
Fun Fact: What is Sleep Onset?
• SLEEP ONSET
– The point of falling asleep and the brain
shutting down
– HYPNIC JERK- The ...
Necessity of Sleep
– Microsleeps: Sleep
lasting only a few
seconds
– Sleep deprivation: Sleep
loss that impairs
concentrat...
Why We Sleep
•Adaptive theory:
Animals evolved sleep
patterns to avoid predators by
sleeping when predators are
most activ...
Why do we need sleep?
1. Ecological Niche: back in the day,
darkness meant death, those that slept
did not go out, thus di...
Sleep Patterns of Infants and Adults
9.5 How does the sleep cycle work?

Source: Roffwarg, 1966

Conscious

Sleep

Stages
...
Sleep Cycle

• Use an EEG machine
to measure stages
of sleep.
• When you are the
onset of sleep you
experience alpha
waves...
Stages of Sleep: Pre-Sleep

– Beta waves
(smaller/faster): Person is
wide awake and mentally
active
– Alpha waves
(larger/...
Stages of Sleep: Non-REM
Stage 1:

Stage 2:

Stages 3 and 4:

Theta waves; light
sleep; hypnic jerk;
hypnagogic images

Te...
Stage 1
• Kind of awake and
kind of asleep.
• Only lasts a few
minutes, and you
usually only
experience it once a
night.
•...
Stage 2
• More Theta Waves
that get
progressively
slower.
• Begin to show sleep
spindles…short
bursts of rapid
brain waves...
Stages 3 and 4
• Slow wave sleep.
• You produce Delta
waves.
• If awoken you will
be very groggy.
• Vital for restoring
bo...
Stages of Sleep: REM
•Rapid eye movement
(REM):
– Eyes moving under
eyelids
– 90% of dreaming

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

R...
Sleep Paralysis

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressants

...
Stages of Sleep Through the Night

Source: Dement, 1974

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts
...
Sleep and Brain Functions…

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

De...
WHY WE NEED REM SLEEP
• Paradoxical Sleep: Your body is paralyzed, but your mind,
hormones, heart and breathing are very a...
Section 2: The Sleep Cycle
Reflect on Learning Goals
•Students should be able to answer the following:
1. What is the biol...
Sleep Cycle Review: Are you Smarter than the average 10
grader?
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
1.What type of brain waves...
Section 3: Sleep Disorders and Dreams
Learning Goals
•Students should be able to answer the following:
1. How does sleep l...
ightmare
Bad
dreams
arousing
feelings
of
horror,
helplessness,
extreme
sorrow,
etc.

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disord...
Common Sleep Disorders- Continued
• Night terrors– Sudden arousal from sleep
with intense fear
accompanied by
physiologica...
Dogs can sleepwalk too
LO 9.6

What are the different types of sleep disorders?

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders
...
Night Terrors

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressants

Na...
Can Sleepwalking be a Crime Defense?

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stim...
Common Sleep Disorders
• Insomnia– Having problems falling or staying asleep
– 10-15% of adults
– Becomes worse with sleep...
Narcolepsy

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressants

Narco...
Sleep Disorders Continued…

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

De...
Rusty the Narcoleptic Dog <3

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

...
Sleep apnea

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressants

Narc...
Dreams
4.5 Why do people dream and what do they dream about?

•

Freud – dreams as
wish fulfillment
– Sigmund Freud
sugges...
WHY DO WE DREAM?
• Information Processing:

– Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s
experiences in our memories.
• A...
WHAT DO WE DREAM ABOUT?
• Negative Emotional Content

• 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional
content.

• Failure Dre...
WHY DO WE DREAM?

49

Conscious

Sleep

Stages

REM

Disorders

Legal

Hypnosis

Facts

Psychoactive

Stimulants

Depressa...
Section 3: Sleep Disorders and Dreams
Reflect on Learning Goals
•Students should be able to answer the following:
1. How d...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Ss aguiar reg psych consciousness 2013

926 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Ss aguiar reg psych consciousness 2013

  1. 1. Consciousness, Sleep & Dreams
  2. 2. Section 1: Rhythms and Consciousness Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is consciousness and what are it’s two levels? 2. What is explicit and implicit processing? 2 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  3. 3. When we are awake we are? In a state of Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our surroundings. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  4. 4. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  5. 5. Peter Tripp.. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  6. 6. How important is sleep to humans?  Sleep is vital to mental health.  Peter Tripp found out that if a person is deprived of sleep, he or she will have psychological symptoms (although not all people have symptoms as extreme as Tripp’s).  Most people think of sleep as a state of unconsciousness, punctuated by brief periods of dreaming; this is only partially correct. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  7. 7. Consciousness Sleep is a state of altered consciousness, characterized by certain patterns of brain activity.  What is consciousness?  Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  8. 8. •9.1 What are the different levels of consciousness? Awareness of everything going on inside and outside of you onsciousness Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  9. 9. Consciousness • Waking: Thoughts, feelings, sensations are clear • Altered state: Shift in quality or pattern of mental activity Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  10. 10. Consciousness Consciousness can range from alertness to nonalertness.  People who are fully aware with their attention focused on something are conscious of that “something.”  A person who is not completely aware is in a different level of consciousness–an altered state of consciousness.  Sleep illustrates an altered state of consciousness. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  11. 11. Freud’s Levels of Consciousness Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  12. 12. Consciousness according to… Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  13. 13. Processing LO 9.2 What is the difference between explicit and implicit processing? • Explicit processing - processing that is conscious, in which you are aware of your thought process (effortful processing). • Implicit processing - process that happens without conscious awareness (automatic processing). Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  14. 14. Stages of Sleep: Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  15. 15. Necessity of Sleep •9.4 What theories exist about the function of sleep? •Circadian rhythm: 24 hour bodily rhythm •Suprachiasmatic nucleus: Internal clock tells people wake up/fall asleep •Hypothalamus: Tiny section of brain influences glandular system Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  16. 16. Circadian Rhythm Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  17. 17. Fun Fact: What is Sleep Onset? • SLEEP ONSET – The point of falling asleep and the brain shutting down – HYPNIC JERK- The feeling of falling as your body goes to sleep- Brain and body not in congruence 17 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  18. 18. Necessity of Sleep – Microsleeps: Sleep lasting only a few seconds – Sleep deprivation: Sleep loss that impairs concentration and results in irritability Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  19. 19. Why We Sleep •Adaptive theory: Animals evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active. ZZZ •Restorative theory: Sleep replenishes chemicals and repairs cellular damage. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  20. 20. Why do we need sleep? 1. Ecological Niche: back in the day, darkness meant death, those that slept did not go out, thus did not die. Sleep protects us. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  21. 21. Sleep Patterns of Infants and Adults 9.5 How does the sleep cycle work? Source: Roffwarg, 1966 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  22. 22. Sleep Cycle • Use an EEG machine to measure stages of sleep. • When you are the onset of sleep you experience alpha waves. • Produces mild hallucinations, like a feeling of falling. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  23. 23. Stages of Sleep: Pre-Sleep – Beta waves (smaller/faster): Person is wide awake and mentally active – Alpha waves (larger/slower): Person is relaxed or lightly sleeping Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  24. 24. Stages of Sleep: Non-REM Stage 1: Stage 2: Stages 3 and 4: Theta waves; light sleep; hypnic jerk; hypnagogic images Temperature, breathing and heart rate decrease; sleep spindles Delta waves; growth hormones released; hard to wake up Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  25. 25. Stage 1 • Kind of awake and kind of asleep. • Only lasts a few minutes, and you usually only experience it once a night. • Your brain produces Theta Waves. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  26. 26. Stage 2 • More Theta Waves that get progressively slower. • Begin to show sleep spindles…short bursts of rapid brain waves. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  27. 27. Stages 3 and 4 • Slow wave sleep. • You produce Delta waves. • If awoken you will be very groggy. • Vital for restoring body’s growth hormones and good overall health. From stage 4, your brain begins to speed up and you go to stage 3, then 2….then …… Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  28. 28. Stages of Sleep: REM •Rapid eye movement (REM): – Eyes moving under eyelids – 90% of dreaming Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  29. 29. Sleep Paralysis Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  30. 30. Stages of Sleep Through the Night Source: Dement, 1974 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  31. 31. Sleep and Brain Functions… Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  32. 32. WHY WE NEED REM SLEEP • Paradoxical Sleep: Your body is paralyzed, but your mind, hormones, heart and breathing are very active – REM sleep increases the longer you sleep – Babies spend about 50% of sleep time in REM – You do not regulate your temperature during REM sleep • REM Sleep is what helps us process daily events into memory & recharge our brains so we can think clearly. • REM Rebound – When you do not get enough REM sleep, the body dips into REM quicker upon sleeping Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens 32
  33. 33. Section 2: The Sleep Cycle Reflect on Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is the biological rhythm of our sleep? 2. What is sleep’s function? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics 33 Dreams Hallucinogens
  34. 34. Sleep Cycle Review: Are you Smarter than the average 10 grader? ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1.What type of brain waves do you have when you are awake, but relaxed? 2.What happens to the brain waves during stage 2 sleep? 3.What is another name for stage 3 and 4 sleep? 4.Why is stage 3 and 4 sleep important? 5.What is another name for REM sleep? 6.What happens in REM sleep? 7.How long is the sleep cycle? 8.Why do babies need so much sleep? 9.In a normal sleep cycle when does most of the deep sleep occur? 10.What psychological phenomenon occurs if a person has been deprived of REM sleep, but then gets a good night’s sleep? Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics 34 Dreams Hallucinogens
  35. 35. Section 3: Sleep Disorders and Dreams Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does sleep loss affect us? 2. What do we dream and what is the function of dreaming? 35 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  36. 36. ightmare Bad dreams arousing feelings of horror, helplessness, extreme sorrow, etc. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  37. 37. Common Sleep Disorders- Continued • Night terrors– Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions – Occurs during stage 4 – Mostly found in children • Somnambulism– Sleepwalking – During the first two hours of sleep in stages 3 & 4 – Usually gone by age 40 – May be caused by an immature nervous system “Wait! Don’t! It can be dangerous to wake them.” 37 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  38. 38. Dogs can sleepwalk too LO 9.6 What are the different types of sleep disorders? Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  39. 39. Night Terrors Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  40. 40. Can Sleepwalking be a Crime Defense? Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  41. 41. Common Sleep Disorders • Insomnia– Having problems falling or staying asleep – 10-15% of adults – Becomes worse with sleeping pills and alcohol – Causes: Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Health Problems • Narcolepsy– Urge to fall asleep; may occur while talking or standing up – 1 in 2000 people – Cataplexy- the sudden loss of muscle tone – Possible reason: flu virus during third trimester • Sleep Apnea– Failure to breathe when asleep – 1 in 20 people – Mostly overweight men (snoring)- Can occur 400 times per night 41 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  42. 42. Narcolepsy Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  43. 43. Sleep Disorders Continued… Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  44. 44. Rusty the Narcoleptic Dog <3 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  45. 45. Sleep apnea Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  46. 46. Dreams 4.5 Why do people dream and what do they dream about? • Freud – dreams as wish fulfillment – Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams provide a psychic safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings. The dream’s manifest (apparent) content may also have symbolic meanings (latent content) that signify our unacceptable feelings. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  47. 47. WHY DO WE DREAM? • Information Processing: – Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences in our memories. • Activation-Synthesis Theory: – Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity. Explains sudden visual images during REM 47 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  48. 48. WHAT DO WE DREAM ABOUT? • Negative Emotional Content • 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content. • Failure Dreams • People commonly dream about failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune. • Sexual Dreams: • Contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are sparse. Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10; and in women 1 in 30. • Dreams of Gender: • Women dream of men and women equally; men dream more about men than women. 48 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  49. 49. WHY DO WE DREAM? 49 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
  50. 50. Section 3: Sleep Disorders and Dreams Reflect on Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does sleep loss affect us? 2. What do we dream and what is the function of dreaming? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics 50 Dreams Hallucinogens

×