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History i and ii ss


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History i and ii ss

  2. 2. What is Psychology? • The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. • A blend of Philosophy and Biology • Started with the Greeks (psyche = soul) • The idea that the Mind and Brain are different • Gained its scientific roots in 1879 with Wundt’s first laboratory in Germany. 2 Section 1
  3. 3. How did Psychology Develop in Pre-Scientific Times? 3 • Socrates & Plato – Mind is separate from the body and knowledge is innate at birth • Aristotle – Mind and the body are one and knowledge is gained from experiences • Rene Descartes – Mind survives the body’s death • John Locke – The mind is a blank slate at birth “tabula rosa” – We learn from our experiences
  4. 4. Applying Theories to Psychology 4 • Theory: An explanation using an integrated set of principles (highly researched) that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events • Strengths of Theories – Produces testable predictions – Effectively organizes information • Weakness of Theories – Does not fully explain all aspects of behavior – Often misused by the public There are many “theories” about hair color and personality
  5. 5. How did Psychology Develop in Post-Scientific Times? • Wilhelm Wundt – Father of Psychology; observed “atoms of the mind” through the first psychology laboratory & experiment involving reaction time and perception speed • G. Stanley Hall (Johns Hopkins University) – First President of APA; first American Psychology Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University • Edward Titchener (Cornell University) – Structuralism- using introspection to explore the structure of the mind (mostly touch, vision, and hearing) • William James (Harvard University) – Functionalism-How mental and behavioral processes function (help the organism to adapt and survive); First psychology textbook- Principles of Psychology • Mary Whiton Calkins – APA’s first female president, had credit for Ph.D., but Harvard would not issue it. • Margaret Floy Washburn – First woman to receive Ph.D. in Psychology and studied behaviorism
  6. 6. Wundt’s Experiment in Psychophysics 6
  7. 7. Who contributed to Modern Psychology? 7 • Sigmund Freud – Physician who developed theories of personality, unconscious mind • John B. Watson – Behaviorist, Little Albert Experiment • Ivan Pavlov – Classical Conditioning Behaviorist, Pavlov’s Dog • B.F. Skinner – Operant Conditioning Behaviorist • Abraham Maslow – Humanist who theorized about human needs • Carl Rogers – Humanistic therapist
  8. 8. Wilhelm Wundt G. Stanley Hall B.F. Skinner Sigmund Freud William JamesEdward Titchener John B. Watson Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers Mary Calkins Margret Washburn Structuralism Functionalism Gestalt Psychology Behaviorism Humanistic PsychologyPsychoanalytic Psychology Carl Jung Ivan Pavlov Red “X” means that they disagreed Max Wertheimer