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Emotions and stress

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Emotions and stress

  1. 1. Emotions 1
  2. 2. Section 5: Embodied Emotions Learning Goals Students should be able to answer the following: 1.What are the components of an emotion?
  3. 3. “Feeling” part of consciousness motion
  4. 4. Love… <3
  5. 5. What are Emotions? • Emotions are: – – – – – – Temporary Positive & Negative Physiological Reactions Expressive Behaviors Conscious Experiences States of Feeling • Where do Emotions Come From? – Limbic System (Thalamus & Amygdala) – Cerebral Cortex (Left/Right Hemispheres) – Autonomic Nervous System (epinephrine) 5
  6. 6. Three Elements of Emotion •28.1 What are the biological, behavioral, and cognitive components of emotion? •1. Physical arousal •2. Behavior that reveals emotion •3. Inner awareness of feelings
  7. 7. Theories of Emotion • James-Lange Theory – Your body first experiences the physiological reaction, then you automatically experience the emotion depending on what occurs in the body – In other words: We feel sad because we cry, angry because we punch – Evidence Supporting this theory: • Spinal cord injured patients experience a less intense emotion • Anger causes blood to rush to the hands and feet, fear causes blood to rush away from the hands and feet 7
  8. 8. Emotion Demo 1 8
  9. 9. Theories of Emotion • Cannon-Bard Theory – States the emotion is first felt in the thalamus, then it is simultaneously direct to the cerebral cortex and the autonomic nervous system – Evidence supporting this theory: • Even people with a suppressed nervous system can experience emotions too 9
  10. 10. Emotion Demo 2
  11. 11. Theories of Emotion • Two-Factor (Schachter-Singer) – Also Known as the cognitive theory of emotion – The interplay of thinking and feeling – Evidence Supporting this theory: • Most emotions invoke the same physiological response • Men injected with epinephrine and placed in a waiting room with a confederate will “catch” the confederates emotion 11
  12. 12. Emotion Demo 3
  13. 13. Section Assessment 1. Which theory of emotion implies that people can change their emotions simply by changing the way they think about the situation and their arousal? (A) (B) (C) (D) James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory Opponent Processing Theory (A) (B) (C) (D) James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory Opponent Processing Theory 2. Which theory of emotion would indicate that people’s emotions are experienced simultaneously with arousal? 13
  14. 14. Section 5 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1.What are the components of an emotion? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
  15. 15. Fails 2010 Compilation
  16. 16. Section 5 and 6: Expressed Emotion and Embodied Emotions Learning Goals 1. What is the link between emotional arousal and the autonomic nervous system? 2. Do different emotions activate different physiological and brain patterns? interpret and label them? 3.How do we communicate nonverbally? 4. Are nonverbal expressions of emotion universally understood across cultures? 5. Do our facial expressions influence our feelings?
  17. 17. Emotions & The Autonomic Nervous System Epinephrine & Norepinephrine 17
  18. 18. Arousal and Performance • Complex Tasks require lower emotional arousal • Simple Tasks can be sustained with higher emotional arousal • Performance is usually best at moderate to high arousal (not too low, not too high) 18
  19. 19. Lie Detection • • • • Polygraph – Measures physiological arousal while being asked yes or no questions – Most used lie detection method (although it is highly unreliable) – Breathing rate, blood pressure, heart rate, skin perspiration Guilty Knowledge Test – Present false and true information about the details of a crime to a suspect and gauge their reaction – Said to be better than a polygraph Microexpressions (Paul Ekman) – Facial expressions that last for 1/25- 1/3 of a second fMRIs – Looks at brain imagery where certain parts of the brain “light up” when people are making a creative lie 19
  20. 20. Lie Detection
  21. 21. Lie Detection 21
  22. 22. Lie Detection 22
  23. 23. Lie Detection 23
  24. 24. Polygraph Findings 24
  25. 25. Learning Goal: What theories explain emotions? SPILL-OVER EFFECT •When emotion from one event spills over into another event •Supports Schatcher-Singer Two Factor Theory •Experiment: Walking the Bridge •Examples: – Rioting after team wins Super Bowl – Falling in Love at the Gym 25
  26. 26. Different Roads to Emotions • Zajonc & LeDoux (low road) – Concludes that simple emotions (fear, anger) are processed without thinking and emotions can occur before cognition takes place – Example: We still fear snakes even when we know it is a harmless snake • Lazarus (high road) – Concludes that complex emotions like guilt, happiness, and love involve how we appraise the situation (Cognitive Appraisal Theory) 26
  27. 27. Nonverbal Communication, Display Rules and Emotions • Women read non-verbals better than men • Fear and Anger come from eyes • Most likely to pick out angry faces faster than happy faces • Body language changes by culture, but Facial expressions are the same worldwide • Display Rules: Different cultures will display different expressions based on certain situations Which is the real smile? – Example: Japanese Medical students watching a surgery WATCH THIS 27
  28. 28. Facial Expressions 1. Communicate Emotion 2. Amplify Emotion 3. Regulate Emotion •Research on Facial Expressions: – Facial expressions provide the best nonverbal communication as to how someone is feeling – Facial-Feedback Phenomenon • Making a certain type of face will amplify emotions • Students who fake smile when looking at cartoons find them to be funnier • Students who frown report more sadness when looking at sad pictures. • Mimicking another person’s facial expression with increase empathy • This evidence supports the James-Lange Theory 28
  29. 29. Experienced Emotions Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt. What do you think this can tell us about emotions? 29
  30. 30. Section 6 Learning Goals 1. What is the link between emotional arousal and the autonomic nervous system? 2. Do different emotions activate different physiological and brain patterns? interpret and label them? 3.How do we communicate nonverbally? 4. Are nonverbal expressions of emotion universally understood across cultures? 5. Do our facial expressions influence our feelings? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
  31. 31. Section 7: Stress and Health Learning Goals Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are the causes and consequences of fear, anger and happiness? 2. What is stress? 3. Why are some of us more prone than others to coronary heart disease?
  32. 32. Basic Emotions: Fear • Extreme Fear is called Terror • Fear increases the release of epinephrine • Biology & Fear – Its all about the Amygdala • People who have damage to their amygdala will trust scary-looking people • There is a gene that influences how much serotonin the amygdala uses, which leads to different fear responses • Are Fears Learned or Not? (judge the following statements) – Lab raised monkeys do not fear snakes, but wild monkeys do – Humans are more quick to develop a fear of spiders than a fear of guns. – Infants start to fear heights after they begin crawling – Monkeys can observe other monkeys being afraid of a snake and they will fear a snake, but after watching other monkeys appear to be afraid of a flower, they do not fear flowers 32
  33. 33. Basic Emotions: Anger • Extreme Anger is called Rage • We become angry most often because of a perceived misdeed by a friend or loved one. • Small annoyances can also produce anger (Traffic, foul odors and high temperatures) • Gender Differences in Anger Management – Boys walk away or exercise – Girls talk to friends or listen to music – Best way to resolve anger: Walk away and Forgive 33
  34. 34. Catharsis Theory • Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or catharsis. – Examples: Hitting a Pillow, Burning an Ex’s picture • Issues with Catharsis: – Leaves a person feeling guilty – Creates a new threshold of anger – Encourages future anger outburst (reward system that is habit-forming) 34
  35. 35. Catharsis Theory
  36. 36. Basic Emotions: Happiness • People who are happy: – perceive the world as being safer. – are able to make decisions easily, – are more cooperative, – rate job applicants more favorably, – and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives. • Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon – When we feel happy we are more willing to help others 36
  37. 37. Basic Emotions: Happiness • Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day. 37
  38. 38. Wealth, Happiness and Satisfaction • It is true that people with more money are happier than those who struggle for their basic needs • Losses of money are more emotional than gains in money • People in rich countries are only slightly happier than those in poor countries • Subjective Well-Being of college students is correlated with those who value Love over Money; report greater life satisfaction • Winning the lottery will make people happy in the short-term, but they eventually return to their original state of happiness • Wealth is like health: its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness 38
  39. 39. Adaption & Comparison • Adaption-Level Phenomenon – Our tendency to adapt to new things over time – Example: at first you are excited about your new cell phone, but as time wears on, it become just another piece of technology – Example: Lottery winners eventually adapt to their winnings • Relative Deprivation – The sense that we’re worse off than people around us – Keeping up the with Jones 39
  40. 40. Predictors of Happiness 40
  41. 41. Stress 41
  42. 42. How does stress affect the body and mind? What is stress? •Stress Defined by Psychologists: the process by which we perceive and respond to threats that challenge us •Daily Hassles vs. Life Changing Stressors Daily Hassle Stressors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Health Money Work Transportation Relationships Life Changing Stressors 1. Injury/Death of a Loved One 2. Divorce 3. Moving 4. Physical Changes in Health 5. Marriage 42
  43. 43. How does stress affect the body and mind? • • • How does the body react to stress? Do you have GAS? Hans Selye’s research on rats led to General Adaptation Syndrome Critical Thinking: Which phase is a person most likely to suffer a physical illness? Cortisol levels increase as it is secreted from the adrenal glands 43
  44. 44. How does stress affect the body and mind? • • • Type A – Competitive, Impatient, Time-conscious, easily angered – Type A people experience higher level of stress causing hormones – Accountants are more likely to experience heart attacks during tax season – Anger is the most important factor in causing heart attacks Type B – Easygoing, Mellow, Laidback – Still can get angry, but less likely to develop heart disease QUESTION: Which type of person is rewarded more in American society? 44
  45. 45. How does stress affect the body and mind? • • • Perceived Control – An absence of control over stressors is a predictor of future health problems. Rates will experience less ulcers if they can control shocks – Perceived control has the ability to extend one’s life when admitted to nursing homes or rehab centers Explanatory Style – People with an optimistic explanatory style tend to have more control over stressors, cope better with stressful events, have better moods and a strong immune system Social Support – Supportive family members and close friends help people cope with stress. Their immune system functions better with lower blood pressure – People with cancer do better when supported by groups and loved ones – People who attend church services tend to live longer 45
  46. 46. How does stress affect the body and mind? How to Manage Stress •Experience Less Stress By: – Having a sense of control – Developing optimistic attitude (cognition) – Building a social support system •Manage your Stress 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Aerobic exercise (produce new brain cells) Biofeedback (machine based) Relaxation Meditation Spirituality 46
  47. 47. Crazy German Kid… definitely Type A personality 47
  48. 48. Review Mini FRQ Janet just finished competing in a bowling tournament with a group from her office. Unfortunately they lost. Explain how the following terms might affect Janet after the match as she goes to a restaurant with friends. •Spill-Over Effect •Catharsis •Framing 48
  49. 49. Section 7 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. What are the causes and consequences of fear, anger and happiness? 2. What is stress? 3. Why are some of us more prone than others to coronary heart disease? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!

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