Ap learning ss

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  • Ask what involuntary responses humans have
  • Show homemade Watson Clip with actual footage.
  • Video Clip- Inside Out Learning Machine (Garcia Effect with Lambs and Coyotes)
  • D, B
  • Edward Lee Thorndike
  • Barrhus Francis Skinner; Show Video Clip of Skinner
  • Chicken Training Clip; Ping Pong Clip
  • Start With Big-Bang Clip of Operant conditioning
  • Any variable
  • Spot Operant Conditioning
  • Video: Rat MazeDemonstration: go to commons area and have three students draw the room (proctors needed so no cheating occurs)
  • Video: Chimp w/AK47, Chimp minds; Mirror Neurons
  • Video: Bobo Doll Study
  • Ap learning ss

    1. 1. AP PSYCHOLOGY Learning 1
    2. 2. Section 1: Classical Conditioning- Part I Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is classical conditioning, and how did Pavlov’s work influence behaviorism? 2. How does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus? 2
    3. 3. Pavlov’ Study Behaviorists dislike Freudian Psychologists because behaviorists claim it is only through observerable responses that we can describe and change human behavior. 3
    4. 4. PAVLOV‟S STUDY • Pavlov‟s Experiment Stage 1: Unconditioned learning) Bell = No Response Food = Drool Stage 2 (Acquisition) Bell + Food = Drool Stage 3 (Conditioned learning) Bell = Drool Secondary or Higher Order Conditioning: Could pairing light with a bell cause the dog to salivate to the light alone? YES • Bell- Neutral Stimulus (NS) • Food- Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • Drool (to the food)- Unconditioned response (UCR) • Bell- Conditioned Stimulus (CS) • Drool (to the bell)- Conditioned Response (CR) 4
    5. 5. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING BASICS • Classical Conditioning (involuntary responses) • Acquisition • The initial stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place • The conditioned stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus • The time between the two stimuli should only be half a second 5
    6. 6. INVOLUNTARY BEHAVIORS • • • • • • • Eye Blink Pupil Dilation Flinching Salivating Sweating Heart Rate/Breathing Immune System Response • • • • • • • Dry mouth Reflexes Fears/Emotions Cravings Arousal Vomiting Autistic Tics/Jerks 6
    7. 7. Section 1: Classical Conditioning- Part I Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is classical conditioning, and how did Pavlov’s work influence behaviorism? 2. How does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 7
    8. 8. Section 1: Test Your Knowledge A mouse will normally flinch after getting a mild shock. During conditioning, a red light is present right before the mild shock is given to the mouse. Soon, the mouse will freeze/flinch when the red light is present alone. US= UR= CS= CR= NS= Would the following process also work to condition the mouse: The mild shock is given to the mouse before the red light is present. Why or Why Not? 8
    9. 9. Section 2: Classical Conditioning- Part II Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. 2. In classical conditioning, what are the processes of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization and discrimination? Do Cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical conditioning? 9
    10. 10. Higher Order Conditioning • AKA- Second Order Conditioning: After a Conditioned Stimulus (CS1) has been established, another conditioned stimulus (CS2) can be added to induce the Conditioned Response (CR). Example: Once the dog has been conditioned to drool to the sound of the bell, the dog can be conditioned again to drool to the sight of a ball using only the bell and no food. 10
    11. 11. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • Extinction (Extinguished) • A stoppage of the conditioned response • May be learned or occur naturally • Spontaneous Recovery • After a resting period, sometimes the classically conditioned behavior reappears. “Old feelings” come back for no reason 11
    12. 12. GENERALIZATION V. DISCRIMINATION • Generalization • The tendency to respond to similar stimuli in a like manner • Example: responding to a pit-bull and a dachshund in the same way • Discrimination • The learned ability to distinguish between two stimuli that are similar • Example: responding differently to a math and English test 12
    13. 13. Little Albert Study (1920) • Little Baby Albert Study • Conducted by John B. Watson (Behaviorist) • Synopsis: Watson classically conditions a baby to fear a white rat. • Unintended Finding: Little Albert learns to generalize his fear of the white rat to other white, furry things (like Santa Claus beard, rabbits, and stuffed animals) 13
    14. 14. Garcia Effect (Taste Aversion) • Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning and not to others (light or sound). 14
    15. 15. Rescorla and Wagner • Robert Rescorla and Allan Wagner showed that animals will learn better through classical conditioning if the UCS predicts the CS • The greater the prediction of the conditioned stimulus (CS), the stronger the conditioned response (CR). • Shows that cognition in the form of “expectations” is a part classical conditioning 15
    16. 16. Section 2: Classical Conditioning- Part II Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. 2. In classical conditioning, what are the processes of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization and discrimination? Do Cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical conditioning? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 16
    17. 17. Section 2: Test Your Knowledge 1. An individual‟s fear of dogs that is lost as the individual is exposed to dogs in a non-threatening situation is referred to by behaviorists as a fear that has been: A. Satiated B. Suppressed C. Repressed D. Extinguished E. Punished 2. Watson conditioned “Little Albert” to fear white rats by banging a hammer on steel bars as the child played with the white rat. Later it was discovered that Albert feared not only white rats, but also white stuffed animals. Albert‟s fear can be attributed to: A. B. C. D. The law of effect Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination An overactive imagination 17
    18. 18. Section Assessment- Part II #1 #2 #3 US- Burn UR- Pain From Burn CS- Fire in Fireplace CR- Fear of Fire US- Car Accident UR- Fear, tensing after accident CS- Brake lights in rain CR- Tense feeling US- Being around cats (dander) UR- Wheezing CS- Sight of cats CR- Wheezing from the sight of cats For each scenario, identify the following: US: UR: CS: CR: 18
    19. 19. Section 3: Operant Conditioning- Part I Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is operant conditioning, and how does it differ from classical conditioning? 2. How do different schedules of reinforcement affect behavior? 19
    20. 20. E. L. Thorndike (1912) • Experimented with cats in a puzzle box • Coined the term “Law of Effect” • If a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying results, then the response is strengthened. • In other words: We keep doing something we find pleasurable. 20
    21. 21. B. F. Skinner (1940s) • Experimented with training pigeons in a Skinner Box • Believes that any person can be controlled based on the idea of behaviorism (leads him to write Walden II) • Expands on Thorndike’s work to create Operant Conditioning • Behavior is based on external factors (rewards and punishments) 21
    22. 22. Operant Conditioning Chamber (Skinner Box) 22
    23. 23. Shaping & Chaining Shaping Rewarding behaviors as they get closer and closer to the desired goal through successive approximations Examples: • Pigeons turning in circles • Learning to putt in golf • Learning to write your name Chaining Linking multiple complex behaviors together through shaping to achieve a final result Examples: • Having a chicken complete an obstacle course • Making a sandwich 23
    24. 24. Reinforcement Types • Positive Reinforcement • Giving something good to increase behavior • Examples: • • • • Yummy Food Smile Good Grades, Stickers Wanted Hugs • Negative Reinforcement • Taking away something bad to increase behavior • Examples: • • • • Annoying seatbelt man Stopping a nagging child/parent Stopping a headache by taking medicine Drug Use to relive withdrawal symptoms 24
    25. 25. Other Types of Reinforcement • Primary Reinforcer • Satisfies a biological need (food, warmth) • Secondary Reinforcer • Learned reinforcer (money, applause) • Continuous Reinforcer • Reinforcers behavior every time it occurs • Leads to rapid acquisition and rapid extinction • Partial Reinforcer • Reinforcement occurs after some, but not all responses • More resistant to extinction 25
    26. 26. Schedules of Reinforcement • Ratio (Response) • Fixed-Ratio: Every time a response occurs • People work harder • Example: typist gets paid by the number of pages typed • Variable-Ratio: Varies unpredictably • The best system for keeping behavior active • Example: Slot Machines • Interval (Time) Very Similar • Fixed-Interval: is „x‟ in length • Behavior occurs steadily over time • Test every two weeks • Variable-Interval: varies unpredictably • Behavior depends on motivation, but best over time • Waiting for a taxi cab 26
    27. 27. Schedules of Reinforcement Which are most resistant to extinction? 27
    28. 28. Section 3: Operant Conditioning- Part I Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is operant conditioning, and how does it differ from classical conditioning? 2. How do different schedules of reinforcement affect behavior? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 28
    29. 29. Section 4: Operant Conditioning- Part II Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does punishment affect behavior? 29
    30. 30. Punishment 30
    31. 31. Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment • Negative Reinforcement • Used to INCREASE a behavior in the future. • Example: You fail your psychology test, so your parents nag you until you study. Your parent’s goal: to get you to increase your performance and study time. • Punishment • Used to DECREASE a behavior from reoccurring. • Example: You do poorly on your psychology test, so your parents take away your cell phone. Your parent’s goal: to stop you from doing other things that distract you and lead to performing poorly on tests in the future. Ask Yourself: What is the ultimate goal of the the conditioning- To Increase or decrease the behavior? 31
    32. 32. Effects of Punishment • Punishment works best when it administered immediately after the behavior • Results in unwanted fears • Conveys no information to organism • Cause a person to avoid situations or other people • Causes unwanted behavior to reappear in absence of punisher • Causes aggression towards the agent of punishment • Increases depression • Lowers Self-esteem • Teaches punishment through modeling 32
    33. 33. Differences between Operant and Classical Conditioning “Pavlovian” “Skinnerian” 33
    34. 34. Keys to Operant Conditioning • Provide immediate and clear feedback • Reinforcers and punishers should be presented as close in time to response as possible • Reinforcement and punishment must be consistent • Biologically predisposed behaviors are more easily reinforced than non-predisposed behaviors. • Feedback must follow subject‟s behavior, not precede it! 34
    35. 35. ‹#›
    36. 36. Section 4: Operant Conditioning- Part II Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does punishment affect behavior? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 36
    37. 37. Section 4: Test Your Knowledge • Answer Questions on the Worksheet: • Types of Schedule of Reinforcement • FI, FR, VI, VR • Punishment or Reinforcement • PR, NR, PUN 37
    38. 38. Section 5: Operant Conditioning- Part III Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect operant conditioning? 38
    39. 39. Latent Learning & Cognitive Maps (E.C. Toleman) • Cognitive maps are based on latent learning, which becomes apparent when an incentive is given (Tolman, 1930) • Rats can learn by “sight-seeing” their maze • Example: Learning the cognitive map of your car’s controls 39
    40. 40. Biological Predispositions • Animals will learn behaviors they are biological predisposed to faster than behaviors that do not come naturally. • Example: A dog will learn to fetch slippers faster than they will learn to climb a tree. Piggy Bank Experiment and “Instinctual drift” Pigs can learn to push things with their snouts easily, but it takes training to get them to learn to pick things up (like wooden coins) in their mouth and they will eventually revert back to pushing with their snouts. 40
    41. 41. Overjustification Effect • Intrinsic Motivation: Motivated by internal drive (Doing things because they interest you) • Extrinsic Motivation: Motivated by outside forces (Doing things to get a reward or avoid punishment) • Overjustification Effect: If you are rewarded for something you already enjoy doing, and then the reward is removed, you will lose your intrinsic motivation. How do you develop intrinsic motivation? Reward behaviors will “good job” or reward behaviors like “best effort” or “most improved” 41
    42. 42. Practical Applications for Operant Conditioning: Biofeedback A system of recording, amplifying and providing feedback about subtle physiological changes. Helps alleviate headaches, hypertension and anxiety 42
    43. 43. Section 5: Operant Conditioning- Part III Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect operant conditioning? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 43
    44. 44. Section 6: Learning by Observation Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is observational learning, and how is it enabled by mirror neurons? 2. What is the impact of prosocial modeling and of antisocial modeling? 44
    45. 45. Learning Through Observation • Observational Learning • Learning by watching others • Modeling • The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior • Animals and humans can learn through observation • Mirror Neurons • Located in frontal lobe next to motor cortex • “Monkey see - Monkey do” • In humans, mirror neurons may help with: • Language • Empathy • Feelings/emotions 45
    46. 46. Bandura‟s Study • QUESTION: Do you think watching violence on TV increases violent behavior? • Bobo Doll Study • Experiments on modeling what is seen on TV • We are especially likely to imitate people we see as familiar to us. • Pro-Social Models • People who exhibit nonviolent behaviors and promote emotional understanding • Works better when actions and words are consistent How would you summarize the results of the Bobo doll 46
    47. 47. Reel World to Real Word Violence • More violence on TV is correlated with more fights in school (Gentile, 2004) • More aggressive acts are committed by those who watch more violent TV (Eron et al, 1987) • White South Africans were introduced to TV in 1975, since then the homicide rate has doubled (Centerwall, 1989) • People who view violence in TV and Video Games tend to be more aggressive and less sympathetic. 47
    48. 48. Section 6: Learning by Observation Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is observational learning, and how is it enabled by mirror neurons? 2. What is the impact of prosocial modeling and of antisocial modeling? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 48
    49. 49. Review: Mini FRQ Emma, a seven-year-old, is playing softball for the first time. She is learning how to hit the ball with the bat. Describe how the following terms contribute to her hitting the ball. • Extrinsic Motivation • Shaping • Observational Learning • Frontal Lobe 49
    50. 50. Review: Mini FRQ- Answers • Extrinsic Motivation • Rewards from outside source • Pressure from parents or teammates • Shaping • Learning in stages • First learns the grip, then the stance, then the position of the bat OR first learns to hit off a tee, then a slow pitch, then a fast pitch • Observational Learning • Learns by watching others bat (mimics other‟s behavior) • Frontal Lobe • Mirror neurons- neurons that allow her to imamate others body position and movements • Motor cortex will help her swing the bat by controlling body movement. 50

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