Aguiar ap personality

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  • 1. T (p. 556) 2. F (p. 560) 3. F (p. 561) 4. F (p. 561) 5. T (p. 567)
    6. T (p. 570) 7. F (pp. 572–573) 8. T (p. 575) 9. F (p. 580) 10. F (p. 586)
  • Psychologists consider personality to be an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
    Personality - the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.
  • Psychologists consider personality to be an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
    Personality - the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.
  • Character - value judgments of a person’s moral and ethical behavior.
    Temperament - the enduring characteristics (irritability, adaptability) with which each person is born. Temperament is based in one’s biology, either through genetic influences, prenatal influences, or a combination of those influences, and forms the basis upon which one’s larger personality is built. Both character and temperament are vital parts of personality, however.
  • The psychodynamic perspective had its beginnings in the work of Sigmund Freud and still exists today. It focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality. This perspective is also heavily focused on biological causes of personality differences.
    The behaviorist perspective is based on the theories of learning as discussed in Chapter Five. This approach focuses on the effect of the environment on behavior.
    The humanistic perspective first arose as a reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives and focuses on the role of each person’s conscious life experiences and choices in personality development.
    The trait perspective differs from the other three in its basic goals: The psychoanalytic, behaviorist, and humanistic perspectives all seek to explain the process that causes personality to form into its unique characteristics, whereas trait theorists are more concerned with the end result—the characteristics themselves. Although some trait theorists assume that traits are biologically determined, others make no such assumption.
  • Founder of the psychoanalytic movement in psychology.
    Europe during the Victorian age.
    Men were understood to be unable to control their “animal” desires at times, and a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort, leaving his virtuous wife untouched.
    Women, especially those of the upper classes, were not supposed to have sexual urges.
    Backdrop for this theory.
  • In his private practice, Freud found that nervous disorders often made no neurological sense. Piecing together his patients’ accounts of their lives, he concluded that their disorders had psycho- logical causes. His effort to understand these causes led to his “discovery” of the unconscious.
    Initially, he thought hypnosis might unlock the door to the unconscious. However, recognizing patients’ uneven capacity for hypnosis, Freud turned to free association, which he believed pro- duced a chain of thoughts in the patient’s unconscious. He called the process (as well as his theory of personality) psychoanalysis.
  • Freud believed the mind is mostly hidden. Our conscious experience is like the part of the iceberg that floats above the surface. Below the surface is the much larger unconscious, which contains thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware. Some of these thoughts we store temporarily in a preconscious area from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness.
    Preconscious mind - level of the mind in which information is available but not currently conscious.
    Conscious mind - level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions.
    Unconscious mind - level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness.
    Can be revealed in dreams and Freudian slips of the tongue.
  • Id - part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious.
    Libido - the instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a society’s standards for behavior.
    Pleasure principle - principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences.
    Ego - part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical.
    Reality principle - principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result.
    Superego - part of the personality that acts as a moral center.
    Ego ideal - part of the superego that contains the standards for moral behavior.
    Conscience - part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal.
  • Freud believed that personality arises from our efforts to resolve the conflict between our biological impulses and the social restraints against them. He theorized that the conflict centers on three interacting systems: the id, which operates on the pleasure principle; the ego, which functions on the reality principle; and the superego, an internalized set of ideals. The superego’s demands often oppose the id’s, and the ego, as the “executive” part of personality, seeks to reconcile the two.
  • Freud believed that personality arises from our efforts to resolve the conflict between our biological impulses and the social restraints against them. He theorized that the conflict centers on three interacting systems: the id, which operates on the pleasure principle; the ego, which functions on the reality principle; and the superego, an internalized set of ideals. The superego’s demands often oppose the id’s, and the ego, as the “executive” part of personality, seeks to reconcile the two.
  • Fixation - disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage.
    Psychosexual stages - five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child.
  • Oral stage - first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. Id dominated.
    (0–18 months)
  • Anal stage - second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Ego develops. (18–36 months)
    Anal expulsive personality - a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile.
    Anal retentive personality - a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn.
  • During the critical phallic stage (3–6 years), pleasure centers on the genitals. Boys experience the Oedipus complex, with unconscious sexual desires toward their mother and hatred of their father. They cope with these threatening feelings through identification with their father, thereby incor- porating many of his values and developing a sense of what psychologists now call gender identity. Some psychoanalysts in Freud’s era believed that girls experienced a parallel Electra com- plex.
    Phallic stage - third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Superego develops.
    Oedipus complex- situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.
    Identification - defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.
  • Latency - fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways. (6 years to puberty)
  • Genital – sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets. Bodily urges cannot be repressed and are allowed into consciousness. (puberty on)
  • During the critical phallic stage (3–6 years), pleasure centers on the genitals. Boys experience the Oedipus complex, with unconscious sexual desires toward their mother and hatred of their father. They cope with these threatening feelings through identification with their father, thereby incor- porating many of his values and developing a sense of what psychologists now call gender identity. Some psychoanalysts in Freud’s era believed that girls experienced a parallel Electra com- plex.
    Phallic stage - third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Superego develops.
    Oedipus complex- situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.
    Identification - defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.
  • In Freud’s view, maladaptive adult behavior results from conflicts unresolved during the oral, anal, and phallic stages. At any point, conflict can lock, or fixate, the person’s pleasure-seeking energies in that stage.
  • In Freud’s view, maladaptive adult behavior results from conflicts unresolved during the oral, anal, ad phallic stages. At any point, conflict can lock, or fixate, the person’s pleasure-seeking energies in that stage.
  • Defense mechanisms reduce or redirect anxiety in various ways, but always by unconsciously distorting reality. Repression, which underlies the other defense mechanisms, banishes anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness; regression involves retreat to an earlier, more infantile stage of development; and reaction formation makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites. Projection attributes threatening impulses to others, rationalization offers self-justifying explanations for behavior, displacement diverts impulses to a more accept- able object or person, and denial refuses to believe painful realities.
  • Neo-Freudians - followers of Freud who developed their own competing theories of psychoanalysis.
    Jung developed a theory of a collective unconscious.
    Personal unconscious - Jung’s name for the unconscious mind as described by Freud.
    Collective unconscious – Jung’s name for the memories shared by all members of the human species.
    Archetypes - Jung’s collective, universal human memories.
    Adler proposed feelings of inferiority as the driving force behind personality and developed birth order theory.
    Horney developed a theory based on basic anxiety and rejected the concept of penis envy.
    Basic anxiety - anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults.
    Neurotic personalities – maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships in Horney’s theory.
    Erikson developed a theory based on social rather than sexual relationships, covering the entire life span.
  • The neo-Freudians accepted Freud’s basic ideas regarding personality structures, the importance of the unconscious, the shaping of personality in children, and the dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms. However, in contrast to Freud, the neo-Freudians generally placed more emphasis on the conscious mind in interpreting experience and coping with the environment, and they argued that we have more positive motives than sex and aggression.
    Unlike other neo-Freudians, Carl Jung agreed with Freud that the unconscious exerts a powerful influence. In addition, he suggested that the collective unconscious is a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history. Contemporary psychodynamic theorists and therapists reject the notion that sex is the basis of personality but agree with Freud that much of our mental life is unconscious, that we struggle with inner conflicts, and that childhood shapes our personalities and attachment styles.
  • Critics contend that many of Freud’s specific ideas are contradicted by new research and that his theory offers only after-the-fact explanations. Recent findings question the overriding importance of childhood experiences, the degree of parental influence, the timing of gender-identity forma- tion, the significance of childhood sexuality, and the existence of hidden content in dreams. Many researchers now believe that repression rarely, if ever, occurs. Nevertheless, Freud drew psychology’s attention to the unconscious and to our struggle to cope with anxiety and sexuality. Today’s psychologists view the unconscious not as seething passions and repressive censoring but as infor- mation processing that occurs without our awareness. Research confirms the reality of uncon- scious implicit learning.
  • Recent research provides some support for Freud’s idea of defense mechanisms. For example, his idea of projection is what researchers now call the false consensus effect. That we defend against anxiety is also evident in tests of terror-management theory. Findings indicate that thinking about one’s mortality provokes enough anxiety to increase contempt for others and esteem for oneself.
    Freud also focused attention on the conflict between biological impulses and social restraints. He reminds us of our potential for evil. Unquestionably, his cultural impact has been enormous.
  • Question: which psychological perspective uses these types of tests? (Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic)
    Projective tests provide ambiguous stimuli that are designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics. In the Thematic Apperception Test, people view ambiguous pictures and then make up stories about them. Presumably, their accounts reflect their interests and inner feelings. The Rorschach inkblot test seeks to identify people’s inner feelings and conflicts by analyzing their interpretations of 10 inkblots. Critics question the validity and reliability of the tests. Nonetheless, many clinicians continue to use them.
  • Answer: C
  • According to Maslow, self-actualization is the motivation to fulfill one’s potential, and self- transcendence is the desire to find meaning and purpose beyond the self. It is one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self- esteem is achieved. In his effort to turn psychology’s attention from the baser motives of troubled people to the growth potential of healthy people, who are thought to be basically good, Maslow reflects the humanistic perspective.
  • Carl Rogers agreed with Maslow that people are basically good and are endowed with self- actualizing tendencies. To nurture growth in others, Rogers advised being genuine, empathic, and accepting (offering unconditional positive regard). In such a climate, people can develop a deeper self-awareness and a more realistic and positive self-concept.
    Self-actualizing tendency – the striving to fulfill one’s innate capacities and capabilities.
    Self-concept - the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in one’s life.
  • The self-concept is based on what people are told by others and how the sense of self is reflected in the words and actions of important people in one’s life, such as parents, siblings, coworkers, friends, and teachers.
  • Real self - one’s perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities.
    Ideal self - one’s perception of whom one should be or would like to be.
    According to Rogers, the self-concept includes the real self and the ideal self. The real self is a person’s actual perception of traits and abilities, whereas the ideal self is the perception of what a person would like to be or thinks he or she should be. When the ideal self and the real self are very similar (matching), the person experiences harmony and contentment. When there is a mismatch between the two selves, the person experiences anxiety and may engage in neurotic behavior.
  • OBJECTIVE 12| Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed personality.
  • Positive regard – warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in one’s life.
    Unconditional positive regard - positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached.
    Conditional positive regard - positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish.
    Fully functioning person – a person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings.
  • Humanistic psychologists assessed personality through questionnaires on which people reported their self-concept. One questionnaire asked people to compare their actual self with their ideal self. Other humanistic psychologists maintained that we can only understand each person’s unique experience through interviews and intimate conversations.
  • Critics complain that the perspective’s concepts are vague and subjective. For example, the description of self-actualizing people seems more a reflection of Maslow’s personal values than a scientific description. Critics also argue that the individualism promoted by humanistic psychology may promote self-indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moral restraints. A final complaint is that humanistic psychology fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity for evil. Its naive optimism may lead to apathy about major social problems.
  • Trait theories - theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior.
    Trait - a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving.
    Allport first developed a list of about 200 traits and believed that these traits were part of the nervous system.
    Cattell reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis.
  • Trait theorists attempt to describe personality in terms of stable and enduring behavior patterns, or dispositions to feel and act. Some theorists use dominant traits and their associated characteristics to describe personality “types.
  • A newer technique is factor analysis, a statisti- cal procedure that identifies clusters of behaviors that tend to appear together. For example, through factor analysis, Hans and Sybil Eysenck reduced normal variations to two or three genetically influenced dimensions, including extraversion–introversion and emotional stability– instability. Brain activity scans suggest that extraverts and introverts differ in their level of arousal,
    with extraverts seeking stimulation because their normal brain arousal level is relatively low. Jerome Kagan maintains that, by influencing autonomic nervous system arousal, heredity also affects our temperament and behavioral style, which help define our personality.
  • Hans and Sybil Eysenck reduced normal variations to two or three genetically influenced dimensions, including extraversion–introversion and emotional stability– instability. Brain activity scans suggest that extraverts and introverts differ in their level of arousal,
  • Psychologists assess several traits at once by administering personality inventories on which peo- ple respond to items designed to measure a wide range of feelings and behaviors. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most extensively researched personality inven- tory. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes. The MMPI items were empirically derived—that is, from a large pool of items, the test developers selected those on which particular diagnostic groups differed. The objec- tive scoring of the test does not guarantee its validity. For example, those taking the MMPI for employment screening may give socially desirable responses that create a good impression.
  • Five-factor model (Big Five) - model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions.
    Openness - one of the five factors; willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences.
    Conscientiousness - the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.
    Extraversion - dimension of personality referring to one’s need to be with other people.
    extraverts - people who are outgoing and sociable.
    introverts - people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention.
    Agreeableness - the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.
    Neuroticism - degree of emotional instability or stability.
  • Researchers have isolated five distinct personality dimensions, dubbed the Big Five: conscien- tiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism (emotional stability versus instability), openness, and extra- version. These traits appear to be stable in adulthood, about 50 percent heritable, descriptive of others around the world, and predictive of other personal attributes. Locating an individual on these five dimensions provides a comprehensive picture of personality.
  • Although people’s traits seem to persist over time, critics of the trait perspective note that human behavior varies widely from situation to situation. Thus, traits are weak predictors of behavior. For example, being conscientious on one occasion is only modestly related to being conscientious on another occasion. Defenders of the trait perspective note that, despite these variations, a person’s average behavior across different situations is fairly consistent. We do have distinct personality traits. Moreover, research suggests that our traits are socially significant; they influence our health, our thinking, and our job performance.
    In informal social situations, our expressive styles—our animation, manner of speaking, and gestures—are impressively consistent. Moreover, we can judge individual differences in expres- siveness in a matter of seconds. Thus, we may form lasting impressions within a few moments of meeting someone.
  • 1) D 2) A
  • The social-cognitive perspective applies principles of learning, cognition, and social behavior to the understanding of personality. Reciprocal determinism refers to the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors. Interactions between individuals and environments occur when different people choose different environments, when our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events, and when our personalities help create situations to which we react.
  • In examining our interactions with our environment, social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, that is, whether we learn to see ourselves as controlling or as being con- trolled by our environment. People who perceive an internal rather than an external locus of con- trol achieve more in school, enjoy better health, are more independent, and are less depressed. Moreover, they are better able to delay gratification and cope with various stresses. Self-control predicts good adjustment, better grades, and social success. People who feel helpless and oppressed often perceive control as external and may develop learned helplessness, as noted in Unit 6. However, under conditions of personal freedom and empowerment, people thrive.
  • In examining our interactions with our environment, social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, that is, whether we learn to see ourselves as controlling or as being con- trolled by our environment. People who perceive an internal rather than an external locus of con- trol achieve more in school, enjoy better health, are more independent, and are less depressed. Moreover, they are better able to delay gratification and cope with various stresses. Self-control predicts good adjustment, better grades, and social success. People who feel helpless and oppressed often perceive control as external and may develop learned helplessness, as noted in Unit 6. However, under conditions of personal freedom and empowerment, people thrive.
  • In examining our interactions with our environment, social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, that is, whether we learn to see ourselves as controlling or as being con- trolled by our environment. People who perceive an internal rather than an external locus of con- trol achieve more in school, enjoy better health, are more independent, and are less depressed. Moreover, they are better able to delay gratification and cope with various stresses. Self-control predicts good adjustment, better grades, and social success. People who feel helpless and oppressed often perceive control as external and may develop learned helplessness, as noted in Unit 6. However, under conditions of personal freedom and empowerment, people thrive.
  • Our attributional style, that is, our way of explaining positive and negative events, can reveal how effective or helpless we feel. Students who attribute their poor performance to their lack of ability or to situations beyond their control are more likely to continue to get low grades than are students with a more optimistic attitude that effort and self-discipline can make a difference. Optimists have also been found to outlive pessimists, as well as to have fewer illnesses. Excessive optimism, however, can lead to complacency and can blind us to real risks. People are often most overconfi- dent when most incompetent. It pays to invite others’ assessments of our competence.
  • 1. E, 2. B
  • The self is one of Western psychology’s most vigorously researched topics. Underlying this research is the assumption that the self, as organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions, is pivotal in understanding personality. One example of research on the self is the study of possible selves. It explores people’s visions of the self they dream of becoming. Such possible selves moti- vate us by laying out specific goals and calling forth the energy to work toward them.
  • p.521 (1-15)
    Another example is the study of the spotlight effect, which reflects our tendency to overestimate others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders.
  • People who have high self-esteem have fewer sleepless nights; are less conforming; are more persistent at difficult tasks; are less shy, anxious, and lonely; and are just plain happier. Some research shows a destructive effect of low self-esteem. For example, temporarily deflating people’s self-esteem can lead them to disparage others and express greater racial prejudice. Other researchers suggest that personal problems and failure may cause low self-esteem. Self-esteem reflects reality; thus, feeling good about oneself follows doing well. According to this explanation, the best way to foster self-esteem in children is to help them meet challenges, not reward them despite their failures.
  • Self-serving bias, our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably, is evident in our tendency to accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad and for successes than for failures. Most people also see themselves as better than average. Defensive self-esteem is fragile and focuses on sustaining itself, which makes failure and criticism feel threatening. Like low self-esteem, defen- sive self-esteem correlates with antisocial behavior. In contrast, secure self-esteem is less fragile because it depends less on external evaluations. Feeling accepted for who we are enables us to lose ourselves in relationships and purposes larger than self.
  • Individualist cultures value personal achievement and fulfillment as well as individual rights and liberties. Relationships are often temporary and casual, and confrontation is acceptable. Individualists tend to define identity in terms of personal traits, and they strive for personal control and individual achievement. Collectivist cultures value group goals and solidarity. Relationships tend to be close and enduring. Maintaining social harmony is important, and duty to family may trump personal career preferences. Collectivists derive their identity from belonging, and one’s life task is to maintain social connections, fit in, and perform one’s role.
  • As the story opens, he is in therapy struggling to find his identity. We see him next operating in the collective, where he is reminded that life is “about us” and not “about me.” He becomes part of a giant wrecking ball
    composed of millions of ants; only by working together do they accomplish their task. The short clip provides an excellent introduction to the major value contrasts associated with individualism and collectivism.
  • In general, people (especially men) in competitive, individualist cultures have more personal free- dom, are less geographically bound to their families, enjoy more privacy, and take more pride in personal achievements. Individualism’s benefits can come at the cost of more loneliness, more divorce, more homicide, and more stress-related disease.
  • 1. Collective, 2. Individual, 3. Collective
  • Jeremy has had a pain in his abdomen for a few weeks and has a strong fear of going to the doctor’s office. But through the encouragement of his wife, he decides to go see the doctor. Discuss how each of the following contributes to his actions or fears.
    Psychoanalytic Perspective
    Behavioral Perspective
    External Locus of Control
    Humanistic Perspective
  • Aguiar ap personality

    1. 1. Personality
    2. 2. Theories of Personality
    3. 3. Section 1: Psychoanalytic Perspective- Part I • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What was Freud’s view of personality and its development? 3
    4. 4. True or False 1. Freud believed that boys develop sexual desires for their mother when they are between 3 and 6 years of age. 2. One of the most reliable and valid measures of personality is the Rorschach inkblot test. 3. Dreams are disguised wish fulfillments that can be interpreted by skilled analysts. 4. Psychologists generally agree that painful experiences commonly get pushed out of awareness and into the unconscious. 5. Most Americans believe that self-esteem is very important for motivating a person to work hard and succeed. 6. Personality differences among dogs are as evident and as consistently judged as personality differences among humans. 7. Most people recognize that personality descriptions based on horoscopes are invalid. 8. From a few minutes’ inspection of our living and working spaces, someone can, with reasonable accuracy, assess our emotional stability. 9. Older people are happiest when they do not have to take responsibility for everyday decisions that affect their lives. 10. The majority of people suffer from low self-esteem.
    5. 5. ersonality Unique and stable ways people think, feel, and behave
    6. 6. Personality Profile: Sam Gamgee
    7. 7. Theories of Personality • Temperament enduring characteristics each person born with • Character value judgments of morality and ethics
    8. 8. Four Main Perspectives Psychodynamic Behavioral PERSONALITY Humanistic Trait
    9. 9. Sigmund Freud • Founder psychoanalytic movement • Cultural background – Victorian era • sexual repression, sex for procreation, mistresses satisfied men’s “uncontrollable” sexual desires
    10. 10. Psychoanalytic Perspective of Personality • Exploring the Unconscious • Developed by Sigmund Freud after analyzing his patients who had nervous disorders • Known as the first comprehensive personality theory • How can a psychotherapist enter the client’s unconscious? – Free Association • Central process in Psychoanalysis • A relaxed person says what ever comes to mind. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – Dream interpretation • Manifest vs. Latent Content 10
    11. 11. Freud’s Psychoanalysis • Psychoanalysis – Freud’s theory of personality and therapy based on it
    12. 12. The Unconscious Mind
    13. 13. Divisions of The Personality Ego Superego ID
    14. 14. Parapraxsis More commonly called Freudian slips Statements that are possible evidence for the unconscious…
    15. 15. Freud’s Personality Structure • The id (it) unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. – Present at birth • The ego (I) functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of the id and superego. It lives by the Reality Principle and delayed gratification – The Ego should be the strongest in healthy people • The superego (over I) provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. It lives by the Moral Principle and is concerned with social restraints 16
    16. 16. Freud’s Personality Structure
    17. 17. Section 1 Review of Id, Ego, Superego • You wake up when your alarm goes off, but you don’t want to get out of bed. Eventually, you get out of bed and head out the door. Then, you start to crave food from Dunkin Doughnuts, but you realize you’ll be late to class. You stop anyway. Then you arrive to school late, and think about what your Mom would say about arriving late and start to feel bad. You sleep through your first period class. Your second period class has a test, you think about skipping, but instead go. Since your teacher isn’t looking, you start to cheat on your test, but then you feel guilty and stop. • For the id, ego and superego, identify ONE example of each from the story above. 18
    18. 18. Section 2: Psychoanalytic Perspective- Part II • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What was Freud’s view of personality and its development? Mr. Burnes 19
    19. 19. Stages of Personality Development • Fixation – unresolved psychosexual stage conflict – “stuck” in stage relevant personality traits and behaviors Orally fixated people may need to chain smoke or chew gum. Or denying the dependence by acting tough or being very sarcastic. Anally fixated people can either be anal expulsive or anal retentive. • Psychosexual stages five stages of personality tied to sexual development
    20. 20. Stages of Personality Development • Oral Oral Anal Phallic Latent Genital Oral stage - first stage, first year – mouth - erogenous zone – weaning is primary conflict
    21. 21. Stages of Personality Development • Oral Anal Phallic Ana l Latent Genital Anal stage – one to three years, ego develops – toilet training conflict – expulsive vs. retentive personalities
    22. 22. Stages of Personality Development • Oral Anal Phal lic Latent Phallic Genital Phallic stage – three to six years, superego develops – sexual feelings – Oedipus complex
    23. 23. Stages of Personality Development • Oral Anal Phallic Latent stage – six to puberty – sexual feelings repressed, same-sex play, social skills Latent Late nt Genital Cooties!
    24. 24. Stages of Personality Development • Oral Anal Phallic Latent Genital Genita l Genital stage – puberty – sexual feelings consciously expressed
    25. 25. Freud’s Stages of Personality Development Libido: Sexual Energy that centers in on a part of the body in each stage The Oedipus complex A boy’s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex. These take place during the Phallic Stage of Development. 26
    26. 26. Oedipus Complex
    27. 27. Psycho Sexual Stages
    28. 28. Section 3: Defense Mechanisms • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How did Freud think people defended themselves against anxiety? Mr. Burnes 30
    29. 29. Scenario Quarterback of the high school football team, Brandon, is dating Jasmine. Jasmine dumps Brandon and starts dating Drew, president of the chess club. Drew Brandon Jasmine
    30. 30. Repression • The Mac Daddy defense mechanism. • Push or banish anxiety driven thought deep into unconscious. • Why we do not •When asked about Jasmine, remember lusting Brandon may say “Who?, I after our parents. have not thought about her for awhile.”
    31. 31. Regression • When faced with anxiety the person retreats to a more infantile stage. • Thumb sucking on the first day of school. • Brandon begins to sleep with his favorite childhood stuffed animal.
    32. 32. Reaction Formation • Ego switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. • Being mean to someone you have a crush on. (cooties) • Brandon claims he hates Jasmine.
    33. 33. Projection • Disguise your own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. • Thinking that your spouse wants to cheat on you when it is you that really want to cheat. • Brandon insists that Jasmine still cares for him.
    34. 34. Rationalization • Offers self-adjusting explanations in place of real, more threatening reasons for your actions. • You don’t get into a college and say, “I really did not want to go there it was too far away!!” • Brandon thinks he will find a better girlfriend. “Jasmine was not all that anyway!”
    35. 35. Displacement • Shifts the unacceptable impulses towards a safer outlet. • Instead of yelling at a teacher, you will take anger out on a friend by peeing on his car). • Brandon may take his anger on another kid by bullying.
    36. 36. Sublimation • Re-channel their unacceptable impulses towards more acceptable or socially approved activities. •Brandon starts to learn how to play the guitar and writing songs (or maybe starts to body build).
    37. 37. Denial • Not accepting the ego-threatening truth. • Brandon may act like he is still together with Jasmine. He may hang out by her locker and plan dates with her.
    38. 38. Things that we do to protect our ego from being hurt Freud’s Defense Mechanisms 40
    39. 39. Defense Mechanisms Worksheet: Answers 1. E 2. A 3. C 4. G 5. F 6. D 7. E 8. F 9. B 10. A 11. C 12. E 13. G 14. D 15. B 16. F 17. A 18.C 19. D 20. B 21. E 22. A 23. F 24. G 25. D 26. C 27. G 28. F 29. C 30. B 31. D 32. G 33. B 34. E 35. A 41
    40. 40. Section 3 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. How did Freud think people defended themselves against anxiety? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    41. 41. Section 4: Neo-Freudians & Beyond • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. Which of Freud’s ideas did his followers accept or reject? 2. How do contemporary psychologists view Freud and the unconscious? Mr. Burnes 43
    42. 42. Neo-Freudians LO 11.3 How did Jung, Adler, Horney and Erikson modify Freud’s theory? • Neo-Freudians - developed competing psychoanalysis theories – Jung: personal and collective unconscious, archetypes – Adler: inferiority and compensation; birth-order theory – Horney: basic anxiety and neurotic personalities – Erikson: social relationships across the lifespan
    43. 43. Other Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Personality • More about the major Neofreudians – Carl Jung • Jung believed in the collective unconscious, which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturance. He called these archetypes. – Alfred Adler • Like Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions. However, these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with an inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power. People who cannot overcome their inferiority will have trouble later in life. – Karen Horney • Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from “penis envy.” 45
    44. 44. Psychoanalytic Perspective: Other Considerations Modern Research Show Freud was probably incorrect in that: •Development is a lifelong process, not limited to five periods •Gender identity does not develop with Oedipus complex, but occurs much earlier •Freudian slips are caused by competing word choice (two words mashed together) •Suppressed sexual feelings do not cause schizophrenia •Repression is a rare concept (most people remember) •The unconscious does not contain secret desires and forbidden passions, but is simply a place to automatically process information (Our autopilot) •Defense mechanisms arise to protect our self-esteem and selfimage, not our forbidden impulses •Freud’s theory is not scientific. It does not predict and is untestable. Freud made a significant progress in the field of Psychology for not having MRIs and Modern Scientific Explanations 46
    45. 45. Freud’s Idea gives way to: • Terror Management Theory – The idea that because we are unconsciously afraid of death, we seek out to enhance our self-esteem. – This explains why we: • Reach out to loved one in times of crisis • Death motives self-esteem and contempt for others we already dislike
    46. 46. Section 4 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. Which of Freud’s ideas did his followers accept or reject? 2. How do contemporary psychologists view Freud and the unconscious? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    47. 47. Section 4
    48. 48. Section 5: Projective Tests • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are projective tests, and how are they used? Mr. Burnes 50
    49. 49. How do we assess the unconscious? We can use hypnosis or free association. But more often we use projective tests.
    50. 50. How do we test personality? • Projective Tests – Tests that try to measure the unconscious by having people respond to ambiguous designs – Poor Inter-rater reliability – No set standards – Examples: • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • Rorschach Inkblot Test 52
    51. 51. Rorschach Inkblot Test • The most widely used projective test •A set of ten to twelve inkblots designed to identify people’s feelings when they are asked to interpret what they see in the inkblots.
    52. 52. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    53. 53. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    54. 54. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    55. 55. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    56. 56. Other Examples of Rorschach Test 58
    57. 57. TAT Thematic Apperception Test • A projective test which people express their inner feelings through stories they make about ambiguous scenes
    58. 58. TAT
    59. 59. Other Examples of the TAT Pictures 61
    60. 60. Section 5: Projective Tests • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are projective tests, and how are they used? Mr. Burnes 62
    61. 61. Section 5: Test Your Knowledge The rationale underlying the use projective personality tests, such as the Rorschach Test and the Thematic Apperception Test, is that they A. can be efficiently administered in a short amount of time B. can be given by almost anyone, since they are simple to administer and score C. reveal the subjects’ personalities by eliciting responses to vague, ambiguous stimuli D. provide clues to subjects’ personalities based on behavioral theory E. reveal patterns of the subjects’ personality traits by requiring response to a large number of objective questions 63
    62. 62. Section 5 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. What are projective tests, and how are they used? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    63. 63. Section 6: Humanistic Perspective • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How did humanistic psychologists view personality, and what was their goal in studying personality? 2. How did humanistic psychologists assess a person’s sense of self? 3. How has humanistic perspective influenced psychology? What criticisms has it faced? Mr. Burnes 65
    64. 64. Humanistic Perspective By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud’s negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists. http://www.ship.edu Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Carl Rogers (1902-1987) 66
    65. 65. Humanistic Theory of Personality • They do not believe in Determinism (your actions are dictated by your past). • They believe that humans have free will (our ability to choose your own destiny). • We are innately good and as long as our self-esteem and self-concept are positive we will be happy.
    66. 66. A Humanistic Approach to Personality • Abraham Maslow – Personality is determined by our quest to reach Self Actualization (fulfilling one’s potential) – Found Self-Actualized people tend to be: • Self-Aware and Self-Accepting of their own faults • Seeking out best experiences • Open and spontaneous • Not paralyzed by other’s opinions • Non-Hostile sense of humor 68
    67. 67. Rogers and Self-Concept • Self-actualizing tendency – striving to fulfill innate capabilities – self-concept – image of oneself; interactions with significant people
    68. 68. Rogers and Self-Concept • Sense of self is reflected in the words and actions of important people in one’s life
    69. 69. Rogers and Self-Concept • Real self - one’s perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities • Ideal self – what one should or would like to be REAL SELF Match = Harmony REAL IDEAL SELF SELF IDEAL SELF Mismatch = Anxiety
    70. 70. Assessing the Self In an effort to assess personality, Rogers asked people to describe themselves as they would like to be (ideal) and as they actually are (real). If the two descriptions were close the individual had a positive self-concept. All of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?” refers to SelfConcept. 72
    71. 71. Rogers and Self-Concept • Positive regard warmth, affection, love, and respect • Unconditional positive regard - positive regard given without conditions • Conditional positive regard - positive regard given when providers’ wishes fulfilled What kind of people are considered to be fully functioning?
    72. 72. A Humanistic Approach to Personality • Carl Rogers & The Self – Believes that personality is determined by free will and self-determinism – Believes that people are naturally good – Congruence: The consistency between one’s selfconcept and one’s experience (ideal vs. actual self) – Unconditional Positive Regard: not judging people; if parents don’t judge their children, but love them for who they are, they will develop a positive selfconcept – Person-centered Approach: Personal growth is determined by being genuine, accepting and empathic others 74
    73. 73. Criticisms of the Humanistic Perspective 1. Poor Testability – How do you test congruence, unconditional positive regard? 2. Unrealistic view of human nature – Are humans really innately good? 3. Inadequate evidence – Who is self-actualized? – Maslow has trouble finding self-actualized people. 75
    74. 74. Section 6 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. How did humanistic psychologists view personality, and what was their goal in studying personality? 2. How did humanistic psychologists assess a person’s sense of self? 3. How has humanistic perspective influenced psychology? What criticisms has it faced? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    75. 75. Section 7: Trait Perspective • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do psychologist use traits to describe personality? 2. What are personality inventories, and what are their strengths and weaknesses as assessment tools? 3. Which traits seem to provide the most useful information about personality variation? 4. Does research support the consistency of personality traits over time and across situations? 77
    76. 76. Trait Theories of Personality • describe people’s personalities by specifying their main characteristics. • Traits like honestly, laziness, ambition, outgoing are thought to be stable over the course of your lives.
    77. 77. Trait Theories of Personality LO 11.7 What are the history and current views of the trait perspective? • Trait theories – describe characteristics for purpose of prediction – trait - a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving • Allport - listed 200 traits believed to be part of nervous system • Cattell reduced number of traits to between 16 and 23
    78. 78. What is Trait Personality? Trait Theory of Personality: a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories or observations. Assumptions of Trait Theory 1.Traits are relatively stable and predictable throughout a lifetime 2.Personality traits are stable predictable across situations 3.People are different and possess different traits 80
    79. 79. History of Trait Theory • Hippocrates – Four Humors in the Blood • Carl Jung – Different personalities based on archetypes – Myers-Briggs Personality Hippocrates Yellow Bile (Angry and Quick-tempered) Blood (Optimistic and cheerful) Phlegm (Slow and Lazy) Black Bile (Thoughtful and depressed) 81
    80. 80. Trait Theory & Factor Analysis Factor Analysis: A statistical procedure that clusters items together from different tests or inventories that are related to one another. Extraversio Extraversio Introversion Introversion Anxious Anxious Quiet Quiet Passive Passive n n Aggressiv Aggressiv e e Talkative Talkative Optimistic Optimistic 82
    81. 81. Eysenck’s Trait Theory • • • Hans and Sybil Eysenck (1963) suggested that personality could be reduced down to two dimensions, extraversionintroversion and emotional stability-instability. Highly reliable, uses factor analysis Stable at all ages from birth through death 83
    82. 82. How do we test personality? • Objective Tests (Empirically Derived) – The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) are the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders. 84
    83. 83. Assessing Personality • Most common way is self-report inventories. • MMPI- Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Test must be • Reliable- does it yield the same results over time. • Valid- does it measure what it is supposed to measure.
    84. 84. How do we test personality? Myers-Briggs Type Indicator based on personality types developed by Carl Jung Higher reliability and lower validity http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp 86
    85. 85. Big Five Vinnie and The Situation from the Jersey Shore provide some nice, introvert/extrovert examples. • The same traits can be used to describe all peoples personalities. • Introversion-Extroversion scale • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. BIG FIVE personality traits: Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Openness to experience Neuroticism- Emotional Stability Factor Analysis is used to see the clusters and score these tests.
    86. 86. McCrae and Costa’s Big Five Trait Theory (1986) • • • Contains five different dimensions of personality traits Valid and reliable, uses factor analysis Becomes more stable as we age 88
    87. 87. The Big Five Dimensions
    88. 88. The Big Five Dimensions
    89. 89. Evaluation of Trait Theory • Support of Trait Theory – Moderate correlations exists between personal spaces and some personality traits – People can accurately tell someone’s personality from a simple two-second video clips – Moderate correlations of traits between parents and offspring • Stanford Professor who also conducted the marshmallow experiment Criticisms of Trait Theory – Traits are too subjective – Walter Mischel’s Person-Situation Controversy – People’s behavior is not always consistent and predictable in every situation • People are honest in one situation and dishonest in another • People can have an anger trait, but not get angry in every situation. • Extroverted people will sometimes be very quiet in situations where they know very little. 91
    90. 90. Section 7: Test Your Knowledge 1. A statistical technique that would allow a research to cluster such traits as being talkative, social and adventurous with extroversion is called A. B. C. D. E. a case study meta-analysis statistical significance factor analysis z score 2. The five-factor theory of personality (The Big Five) does NOT include which of the following characteristics? A. B. C. D. E. Intelligence Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 92
    91. 91. Section 7 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. How did humanistic psychologists view personality, and what was their goal in studying personality? 2. How did humanistic psychologists assess a person’s sense of self? 3. How has humanistic perspective influenced psychology? What criticisms has it faced? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    92. 92. Section 8: Social-Cognitive Perspective • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. In the view of social-cognitive psychologists, what mutual influences shape an individual’s personality? 2. What are the causes and consequences of personal control? Mr. Burnes 94
    93. 93. Social-Cognitive Theories on Personality • Focus on how we interact with our culture and environment! • Reciprocal Determinism (traits, environment and behavior all interact and influence each other.) • Albert Bandura (bobo gu is back!!!
    94. 94. Social-Cognitive Perspective of Personality • Albert Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism – Personality traits influences environmental situations and environment influences personality. Danny makes comment about people buying too much stuff in express checkout Danny feels angry about people in the long line People give Danny dirty looks 96
    95. 95. Social-Cognitive and Personal Control • Locus of Control (Rotter, 1966) – Internal: The perception that we control our own fate (Why we like I-pods and Cable TV/Tivo) • Belief that we have control over our environment and destiny – – – – – – – Achieve more at school Act more independently Enjoy better health Feel less depressed Able to delay gratification Cope with stress better Survive storms – External: The perception that chance determines what happens in our lives (80% of college students report being more external) • Belief that one’s success is determined by luck – Greater satisfaction in situations that are uncontrollable 97
    96. 96. Internal Locus of Control 98
    97. 97. External Locus of Control
    98. 98. Optimism vs. Pessimism: Research Findings • Attributional style (how you explain successes & failures) – The best indicator of a person’s optimism or pessimism – Positive Attributional Style: “I will do better next time” – Negative Attributional Style: “I can’t do this, it is too hard” • Optimism (Glass half-full) – Optimists live healthier and longer than pessimist – Those who are optimistic, but also realistic in their abilities tend to be the most successful • Excessive Optimism – Increase risk for STDs – Cigarette smokers believe their brands is less harmful than the next – People often are most overconfident when they are most incompetent • Pessimism (Glass half-empty) – Small amounts of pessimism can help in academic endeavors • Asian students tend to be more pessimistic in academics compared to Americans – Tend to be more susceptible to illness 100
    99. 99. Social-Cognitive and Learned Helplessness • Learned Helplessness (Seligman) – To become hopeless and passive after repeated bad event – Dog Experiment • Is choice always a good thing? – One study indicates that when given a choice between 30 types of chocolate, people feel less satisfied with their choice rather than when only given six choices – Called the Tyranny of choice – Leaves us with regret, wishing we chose something else – Small amounts of choices still allow us personal control which increase happiness and reduces stress Martin Seligman is now the founder of the positive psychology movement which studies how to be more optimistic in your thinking 101
    100. 100. Section 8: Test Your Knowledge 1. Individuals who believe that an unpleasant experience is unavoidable and therefore do nothing to change the course of events are exhibiting A. B. C. D. E. 2. self-actualization attributes the fight-or-flight response attributional deficits cognitive dissonance learned helplessness Psychologists from which of he following perspectives of personality are most interested in assessing a person’s locus of control? A. B. C. D. E. Psychoanalytic Cognitive Evolutionary Humanistic Gestalt 102
    101. 101. Section 8 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. In the view of social-cognitive psychologists, what mutual influences shape an individual’s personality? 2. What are the causes and consequences of personal control Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    102. 102. Section 9: The Self and Personality • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. Are we helped or hindered by high self-esteem? Mr. Burnes 104
    103. 103. The Self & Self Esteem • The Self – An organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions • Possible Selves – The self you hope to be – The self you are to your friends – The self you are to your family – The self you are at school Playing Pretend Allows young children to develop emotional, social and cognitive roles and esteem 105
    104. 104. Other Terms to Know About the Self • Spotlight Effect – Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance – Example: Wearing a dorky shirt (few actually notice) • Self-Reference Effect – Relating new material to yourself makes it easier to recall later. • Self-Handicapping – Unconsciously performing a behavior that will result in lower performance – Example: partying the night before a test 106
    105. 105. The Self & Self Esteem • Self-Esteem Findings – Low self-esteem leads people to: • Become more prejudice • Become critical of and make fun of others – High Self esteem is correlated with: • • • • Persistent at difficult tasks Less anxiety, shyness, loneliness Job security and salary Happiness • Defense Self-Esteem – Protects the ego from critical evaluations – Leads to aggressiveness and antisocial behavior • Secure Self-Esteem – Feeling accepted for who we are (the good and the bad) – Comes from internal evaluation; similar to self-actualization 107
    106. 106. Self-Efficacy • • Self-Efficacy: One’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in a specific situation. (Albert Bandura) People with a strong sense of self-efficacy: – View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered. – Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate. – Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities. – Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments. • People with a weak sense of self-efficacy: – Avoid challenging tasks. – Believe that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilities. – Focus on personal failings and negative outcomes. – Quickly lose confidence in personal abilities (Bandura, 1994). Where do you fall in your selfefficacy? 108
    107. 107. Self-Serving Bias • Self-Serving Bias – The readiness to perceive oneself favorably – Example: Athletes attributing their loss to bad calls by the referees, not to their poor performance • Other Research Findings: – We remember our past actions in selfenhancing ways – We exhibit inflated confidence in our beliefs and judgments – We overestimate how often we would help someone – We seek out self-enhancing information – We are quicker to believe flattery – We exhibit group pride Bingo Bias Bingo Bias 109
    108. 108. Section 8: The Self and Personality • Reflect on Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. Are we helped or hindered by high self-esteem? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals! Mr. Burnes 110
    109. 109. Section 9: Cultural Influences • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do individualist and collectivist cultural influences affect people? Mr. Burnes 111
    110. 110. Other Considerations of Culture • Individualism – Value privacy – Value achievements and uniqueness – Higher rates of divorce Collectivistic cultures are less likely to embarrass others, but more likely to promote social harmony. • Collectivism – – – – More Modesty Promote Family Loyalty More Respectful of Elderly Less Likely to embarrass others 112
    111. 111. Collectivism vs Individualism: Antz
    112. 112. Culture and Self 114
    113. 113. Comprehension Check 1. Which culture is likely to promote social harmony? 2. Which culture is likely to emphasize higher self-esteem in children? 3. Which culture is likely to show little outward emotion? 115
    114. 114. How does culture influence the self? Rating 4.0 Expert Student Evidence I can teach others about the differences between independent and collective cultures and analyze how cultures create differences in personalities. 3.0 Proficient I can explain the differences between independent and collective cultures as they relate to the self. 2.0 Developing I can identify a few differences between collective and independent cultures. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help! 116
    115. 115. Review: Mini FRQ Jeremy has had a pain in his abdomen for a few weeks and has a strong fear of going to the doctor’s office. But through the encouragement of his wife, he decides to go see the doctor. Discuss how each of the following contributes to his actions or fears. •Psychoanalytic Perspective •Behavioral Perspective •External Locus of Control •Humanistic Perspective 117

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