LEQ: What factors influenced the peacetreaties that ended World War I, and how didpeople react to the treaties?
All nations faced the devastation causedby World War I.More than 8.5 million men died and more than16 million were wounded fighting in the war.Many of the woundedwere disabled for life.Six to thirteen millioncivilians also died inthe war.Many others becamerefugees.
The situation was worsened by a 1918 influenzapandemic that killed 20 million people worldwide.• Buildings all over Europe had been bombedinto rubble.• Countries faced huge war debts and the costof reconstruction.• Refugees had to rebuild.• pandemic – a disease spread across a large area, country,continent, or the entire world
Colonial troops hoped for independence for theiroccupied countries.Political radicals dreamed of instituting new social andpolitical systems, including bolshevism (communism).The governments in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire had collapsedunder the stresses of war.• radicals – people who want to makeextreme changes
British Prime MinisterDavid Lloyd George,French Prime MinisterGeorges Clemenceau,and U.S. PresidentWoodrow Wilson metat the Paris PeaceConference after thewar ended.
The three leaders met with the leaders of the otherAllied countries to discuss the fate of Europe, theformer Ottoman empire, and various colonies.The Paris Peace TalksThe Central Powers and Russia were not allowed totake part in the negotiations at the conference.
Goals of the Allies at the Paris Peace ConferenceWoodrowWilson• “Peace without victory” basedon the Fourteen PointsDavid LloydGeorge• Money to rebuild andimprove BritainGeorgesClemenceau• A weakened GermanyVittorioOrlando• Italian ownership oflands promisedPeople of EasternEuropean empires• National states of their own
The German delegates were horrifiedbecause the Allies:• Forced Germany to accept full blame for the war• Imposed reparations of $30 billion on Germany• Severely limited the size of the German military• Took land and overseas colonies from GermanyIn June 1919, the Allies forced Germanyto sign the Treaty of Versailles.• reparations – payments for war damage
The Allies drew up separate treaties with the otherCentral Powers. New countries were created.The treaties denied independence to European colonies,making them mandates instead.• Poland• Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia• Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary• Yugoslavia• mandate – a territory administered byWestern powers
Many of President Wilson’s Fourteen Pointswere not implemented in the treaties.German resentmentof the Treaty ofVersailles wouldlater spark WorldWar II.Germany, theother CentralPowers, andother countriesand colonieswere angered bytheir treatment.
Wilson did succeed in establishing the League ofNations, a group of more than 40 countries formed tonegotiate disputes in an effort to avoid future wars.Although the Leagueoffered collectivesecurity, the U.S.Senate refused to ratifythe Treaty of Versailles.The United Statesnever joined theLeague of Nations.• collective security – a system in which a group of nations acts asone to preserve the peace of all
The huge human, financial, and political costs ofthe war influenced the treaties. Many weredissatisfied with the outcomes.LEQ: What factors influenced the peace treatiesthat ended World War I, and how did peoplereact to the treaties?