Westward Expansion


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Westward Expansion

  1. 1. Westward Expansion
  2. 2. The Napoleonic Wars <ul><li>Napoleon Bonaparte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1801- first consul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1804- Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A French empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed to take India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louisiana- an opportunity in the New World to establish a dominant position </li></ul>
  3. 3. Napoleon & Louisiana <ul><li>Friend or Enemy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s ambitions recognized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson learned of secret San Ildefonso Treaty (1800) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Orleans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital port- products from the West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain wouldn’t allow transfer of goods to ocean liners from barges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially closed the lower Mississippi River </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Jefferson’s Options <ul><li>Invade New Orleans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help westerners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start a war w/ France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abide by Spanish law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid war w/ France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose support of westerners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buy New Orleans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson’s suggestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambassador Robert Livingston </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Louisiana Purchase <ul><li>Livingston proposed purchase of western Louisiana </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson asked Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase size of Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct a river fleet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impression? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French Army & Navy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen in harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1803 European offensive </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Louisiana Purchase <ul><li>Napoleon offered all of Louisiana </li></ul><ul><li>The Deal- April 30, 1803 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$15 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French get exclusive commercial rights in New Orleans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residents = citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear boundaries = “same extent” as under Spain & France </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Louisiana Purchase
  8. 8. Lewis & Clark
  9. 9. Lewis & Clark <ul><li>Jefferson wanted to explore the continent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography & trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1803 helped to plan an expedition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meriwether Lewis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Clark </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Corps of Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 dozen men & Sacajawea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 1805 reached Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sept. 1806 back in St. Louis </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Lewis & Clark
  11. 11. Lewis & Clark
  12. 12. Conflicts with Indians <ul><li>William Henry Harrison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1801 Gov. of Indiana territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American policy for Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilate & become farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move West of the Mississippi River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tensions between the US & Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada thought an invasion likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to build alliances w/ Indians </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Conflicts with Indians <ul><li>Tenskwatawa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the Prophet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preached about the sinfulness of whites & superior virtues of Indian civilizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious commonality lead to efforts for political & military unity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tecumseh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brother to Tenskwatawa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader of Shawnees </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Conflicts with Indians- Tecumseh <ul><li>Believed only united efforts by Indians could to advance of whites </li></ul><ul><li>1809- attempted to unite all Indians of Miss. Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Treaties weren’t valid b/c individual tribes couldn’t cede land which belonged to all of the tribes </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conflicts with Indians- Tecumseh <ul><li>Tecumseh speaking to Harrison </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Great Spirit gave this great island to his red children. He placed the whites on the other side of the big water. They were not contented with their own, but came to take ours from us. They have driven us from the sea to the lakes- we can go no farther.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conflicts with Indians <ul><li>Tecumseh traveled south in 1811 to encourage the southern tribes to support the confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Harrison attacked in the battle of Tippecanoe- Nov. 1811 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burned the town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disillusioned Indians b/c the Prophet’s magic didn’t protect them </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A Fever for War <ul><li>British Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported Indians v. US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spanish Florida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves escaped into Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian raids on Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water routes to Atlantic ports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British restrictions on trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to European markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impressment of sailors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The War of 1812
  19. 19. The War of 1812 <ul><li>Encouraged by Henry Clay (KY) & John C. Calhoun (SC) </li></ul><ul><li>US declared war June 18, 1812 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain was distracted by Napoleon until 1814 </li></ul>
  20. 20. The War of 1812 <ul><li>The Battle of the Thames </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Henry Harrison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of Tecumseh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakened Indians of the NW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Creeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson in FL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Horseshoe Bend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creeks ceded lands & moved westward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nov. 7, 1814- captured Pensacola </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The War of 1812 <ul><li>1814 Napoleon surrendered </li></ul><ul><li>British had ignored the US, but could not focus forces </li></ul><ul><li>British landed outside D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Entered the city & burnt the White House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August 24, 1814 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retaliation for burning of Toronto/ York </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Washington Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>Fort McHenry over Baltimore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ready & waiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunk old ships at harbor entry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Francis Scott Key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On a British ship negotiating release of an American prisoner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote “The Star- Spangled Banner” poem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later put to music of an English drinking song </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1931 became the national anthem </li></ul></ul>The War of 1812
  23. 23. Other Battles <ul><li>Plattsburgh- Sept. 11, 1814 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large British force defeated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected N. border </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Orleans- Jan. 8, 1815 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British vets from France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson’s forces dug in & well protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British in open & decimated </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Treaty of Ghent <ul><li>Negotiations began in 1814 </li></ul><ul><li>Ghent, Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically just ended the fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed Christmas eve 1814 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest unguarded border </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade agreements & + relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More westward expansion </li></ul></ul>