Scientific Revolution


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Some notes for the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment. We will actually come back to this and cover the Enlightenment separately at a later time. For now, just concentrate on everything up to and including Newton.

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Scientific Revolution

  1. 1. The Scientific Revolution Or: How Europeans Learned to Control the World
  2. 2. The Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Adds to the sense that humans can know and learn </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests Humans are not perfect but can improve </li></ul><ul><li>Questions the traditional Religious Explanations for events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes science and Logic over faith. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Ancient Ideas <ul><li>Ptolemy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Greek guy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geocentric concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is the center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything revolves around earth in perfect circles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The universe is constant - never changing </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Copernicus’ Ideas <ul><li>Heliocentric Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun center of Universe (or at least the solar system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He couldn’t PROVE it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains calendar inconsistencies better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planets orbit sun in perfect circles </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) <ul><li>A SERIOUS Loner! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed & mapped over 700 stars in a 20 year period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations backed up heliocentric theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1572 Discovered a Supernova </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the significance? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) <ul><li>Laws of Planetary Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Using math and observations, was able to prove Copernicus was right </li></ul><ul><li>Also found that Planets move in ellipses (ovals) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains movements better </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>Tests gravity on Tower of Pisa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drops weights of various mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32 ft/sec/sec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Telescope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moons of Saturn visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon is not perfect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brings up religious questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why would God NOT put us in the middle of everything? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we not special? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Galileo and the Inquisition Condemned by Church for questioning Creation story Changed his story upon threat of death Later recanted and republished his findings Put under house arrest for life
  9. 9. Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727) <ul><li>Explained Gravitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains Kepler’s laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three laws of motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects in motion stay in motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal and opposite reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force on an object is equal to its mass x’s acceleration </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. René Descartes (1595-1650) <ul><li>Deductive Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cogito ergo sum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I think, therefore I am </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I can use logic to prove things. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sir Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) <ul><li>Preferred inductive approach </li></ul><ul><li>Critical of Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>Gave primacy to senses & direct experience </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul>
  12. 12. The European Enlightenment Applying Science to Society
  13. 13. Philosophes <ul><li>Voltaire & Other writers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularized rationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason Can solve the problems of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans perfectible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred “Enlightened Despot” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. John Locke (1632-1704) <ul><li>Applies rationalism to society </li></ul><ul><li>Argues for Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Society is an agreement in which </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals give up freedom to protect freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have right to overthrow government </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Right to Remove Tyrannical Government <ul><li>Whensoever, therefore, the legislative shall transgress this fundamental rule of society. . . Endeavour to grasp themselves or put into the hands of any other an absolute power. . . They forfeit the power the people had put into their hands. . .the people, who have a right to resume their original liberty. . .” </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government </li></ul>
  16. 16. Jean-Jaques Rousseau <ul><li>The Social Contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans agree to society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract means must set up laws & abide by them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic - democracy does not work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected officials </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Social Contract <ul><li>“ Man was born free, but everywhere he is in chains. . . At a point in the state of nature when the obstacles to human preservation have become greater than each individual . . .can cope with. . ., and adequate combination of forces must be the result of men coming together. Still, each man’s power and freedom are his main means of self-preservation. How is he to put them under the control of others without damaging himself. . .?” </li></ul><ul><li>The state only gains powers by “the right of first holder which the individuals convey to the state.” </li></ul><ul><li>Each citizen MUST participate in the political process as an individual, not as a member of an interest group. </li></ul>