Intro To Psychology Chap 1

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A little intro presentation to get us going

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Intro To Psychology Chap 1

  1. 1. What is Psychology? <ul><li>The scientific study of human and animal behavior </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is Behavior? <ul><li>Pretty much ANYTHING that you do, think or feel. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Psychology <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies why things happen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with theories and lab experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Lab tests show people’s anxiety level increases when surrounded by the color red.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applied: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figures out how to USE information found by researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“NASA scientists study which colors to paint the inside of the International Space Station” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fields of Psychology Where Psychologists work
  5. 5. Example fields (p21-22) <ul><li>Clinical Psychology – therapists etc </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Psychology – therapists for kids, help ID and aid learning styles and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Child Psych – how the brain grows and learns to learn. Also – how to parent </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Psych – coping with disasters, crowding, workplace environment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Example Fields continued <ul><li>Industrial Psych – marketing, public relations, efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Psych – human / machine interaction, design casinos </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Psych – usually research people. Lab experiments. Colleges </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching – this class for instance </li></ul>
  7. 7. History of Psychology The founders
  8. 8. Charles Darwin <ul><li>Not a psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Developed theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Believed we can study animals to understand ourselves </li></ul>
  9. 9. William Wundt (“Vundt”) <ul><li>Germany 1880s </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>“ Father of Psychology” </li></ul><ul><li>First to try to scientifically study the workings of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Introspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record your thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map out the thought process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not work out well – but inspired others </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. William James <ul><li>First American Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>1880s – 1900s </li></ul><ul><li>All activities of the mind (thinking, feeling learning, remembering) serve to help us survive </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Austrian late 1800s – 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious mind is only the tip of the iceberg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration on the unconscious mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ learn through dream analysis” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Francis Galton (1880s, England) <ul><li>Is Behavior / Intelligence hereditary or learned? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ nature vs nurture idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based his ideas on biographies of “intellectual” families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has some serious flaws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed the first “personality tests” and “intelligence tests” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ivan Pavlov <ul><li>Russia early 1900s </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments with his dog </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior is result of past experience </li></ul></ul>                       
  14. 14. John Watson (early 1900s) <ul><li>ALL behavior is the result of learning (or conditioning) – even what we think is instinct </li></ul><ul><li>Similar experiments as Pavlov – but Watson used children </li></ul><ul><li>Has some serious </li></ul><ul><li>impact on the kids </li></ul>Albert and the rat
  15. 15. B.F. Skinner <ul><li>Mid – late 1900s. American </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning can be applied to entire societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward for behavior results in that behavior being done again in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Though he did not feel the opposite worked (punishment does not change behavior – just covers it up) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire basis for “Walden II” – a utopian society based on rewarding good behavior </li></ul></ul>(Class participation points work the same way 
  16. 16. Approaches to Psychology <ul><li>Neurobiological </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul>
  17. 17. Neurobiological <ul><li>Concentrates on the Chemical / Physical reasons for behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What chemical reactions occur in our brains and bodies as a result of stimulations and what reactions do they cause? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In some ways, our behavior is hard wired into us </li></ul>
  18. 18. Just for laughs
  19. 19. Outdoor Grilling Area
  20. 20. Behavioral <ul><li>We adapt our behavior based on rewards </li></ul><ul><li>We learn through experience </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior can be changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner was a behavioralist </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Humanistic <ul><li>Interested in what it means to be human </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has the chance to grow to greatness. The only thing holding us back is ourselves. </li></ul>We continually strive to achieve greatness Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  22. 22. Psychoanalytical Approach <ul><li>We all have suppressed desires </li></ul><ul><li>We unconsciously do things to alleviate these desires </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze what we do subconsciously in order to understand our REAL selves. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud: father of psychoanalysis </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Studies how we process information through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>perception, attention, language, memory, and thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How they influence our thoughts, feelings, behaviors and ability to operate in our world. </li></ul><ul><li>Past experiences make the difference between one person's perception and another's </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you give an example to illustrate this? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Sociocultural Approach <ul><li>Impact society has on behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economics, race, ethnic group, climate, religion, language, traditions, cultures, gender, location, politics, etc </li></ul></ul>

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