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Barbarossa to VE Day


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Class notes about WW2. We are using plenty of maps etc in this unit.

Barbarossa to VE Day

  1. 1. The German invasion of the Soviet Union Hitler’s Big Mistake
  2. 2. June 1941 Operation Barbarossa                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
  3. 3. Over 3 MILLION German soldiers (more than 130 Divisions) and over 3,000 tanks blitz into the Soviet Union
  4. 4.   <ul><li>Germans Blitzkrieg the Soviet front line forces </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets cut off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands surrender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germans advance on Leningrad, Moscow and the Southern Caucasus Region </li></ul>
  5. 5. “The Cauldron Battles:
  6. 6. 665,000 Red Army soldiers surrender on 25 August at Kiev  
  7. 7. The Opening Phases <ul><li>Stalin was so surprised he was paralyzed by fear. Cant make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin finally announces a scorched earth policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it can be moved east - move it. If it can’t – burn it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Just like Russians did against Napoleon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets move entire factories to the east to keep them from getting captured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then reassemble them and start churning out equipment even before the walls are in place or the roof is on </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A Brutal War <ul><li>Soviets never signed Geneva Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans often shot Soviet prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In return, Soviets shoot German prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civilians targeted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massacres on both sides </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Enemy At The Gates <ul><li>Germans reach the outskirts of Moscow. Leningrad is surrounded and under siege </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin brings in Marshal Zhukov from Siberia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the few generals to survive the Great Purge </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Citizens of Moscow prepare to defend the city Will the Germans capture Moscow?
  11. 12.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
  12. 13. Then the first snows of winter begin to fall Germans still have summer uniforms!
  13. 14. Soviets are nice and warm in their winter uniforms Germans can not take Moscow. Barely hold on during the winter But they will try again in the spring
  14. 15. Under German Control at end of 1941
  15. 16. Meanwhile: In the Pacific <ul><li>Japan taking over much of China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many atrocities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rape of Nanking” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>US cuts off exports to Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil, scrap metal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan looks to Southeast Asia to get the resources it needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But first it must make sure the US navy can not intervene to stop them. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Tojo – if you don’t stop killing Chinese, we will cut off your oil Do not threaten us! That’s it, no oil for you Then we will have to take it from somewhere else
  17. 18.                                                                                                 
  18. 19. Dec 7 th , 1941 US Fleet at Pearl Harbor Hawaii bombed By Japanese
  19. 21. US Enters the War <ul><li>Dec 8 th 1941, US declares war on Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 9 th 1941 – Germany declares war on US </li></ul>
  20. 22. The Limits of Japanese Expansion (Spring 1942)
  21. 24. 1942 – The Year the War Changed <ul><li>US is now in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Germans stopped at Stalingrad by Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>Germans stopped at El Alamein in North Africa by British </li></ul><ul><li>Americans land in North Africa to help Brits </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese stopped by the US at the Battle of Midway in the Pacific </li></ul>
  22. 25.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
  23. 26. <ul><li>1942 Germans finally halted at Stalingrad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried for 4 months to take city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House to house, even room to room fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>January of 1943 Russians counterattack. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>330,000 German troops killed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or captured </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Africa and Italy Continued <ul><li>1942 – 1943 US and British seize Sicily and then invade Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy surrenders in 1943. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mussolini overthrown and executed by Italian mob </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans continue to occupy and fight in Italy </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Under German Control
  26. 30. 1943 - Allies invade Italy Mussolini arrested by King of Italy Germans occupy Italy and continue to fight
  27. 33. The Return to France Build up to D-Day
  28. 39. D-Day June 6, 1944
  29. 40. The Normandy Invasion “Operation Overlord” <ul><li>D-Day, June 6 th , 1944. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US, British, Canadian and Free French forces land in Normandy (Northwest coast of France) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied Troops under command of Gen. Dwight D Eisenhower. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 43. OOOPS!!
  31. 46. <ul><li>August 1944 – The Breakout </li></ul><ul><li>Allies fight hard in Normandy during summer. Then break out and race across France. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany seems about to surrender </li></ul>
  32. 51. September 1944 <ul><li>Allies outrun their supply capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run out of gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A Bridge Too Far” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germans regroup. Plan for counteroffensive in the winter </li></ul>
  33. 52. December 1944 <ul><li>Battle of the Bulge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German Counteroffensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack through Ardennes Forrest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same as in 1940 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany’s Last Great Roll of the Dice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initially very successful, then allies counterattack and defeat the Germans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>101 st Airborne holds Bastogne </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany has lost its last shot at the war. </li></ul>
  34. 56. The End for Hitler and the Nazis May 1945 – Hitler kills himself
  35. 58. To Review <ul><li>Sept. 1 1939 – Germany invades Poland, kicking off WWII </li></ul><ul><li>May 1940 – Fall of France </li></ul><ul><li>June 1940 – Battle of Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 1941 – Germany invades Balkans, Greece, Crete and moves into North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Late June 1941 – Germany invades Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoys great success, until they are stopped just outside Moscow by Zhukov. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German drive stops for winter </li></ul></ul>
  36. 59. To Review <ul><li>Dec 7, 1941 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor Hawaii </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US declares war on Japan. Germany declares war on US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between Dec 1941 and June 1942 -Japanese capture the Philippines, many islands in the Pacific, Singapore, Southeast Asia, and threaten Australia </li></ul><ul><li>June 1942 – Battle of Midway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning point in the Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer1942 – Germany launches new offensive in Russia – Target: Stalingrad </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 1942 – Americans land on West Coast of North Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Trap Rommel between the British and the US forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dec 1942 – Germans surrounded at Stalingrad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning point on the Russian Front </li></ul></ul>
  37. 60. To Review <ul><li>July 1943 – US / British invade Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Sep 1943 – US / British finish off Sicily and invade Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy surrenders but Germans in Italy keep fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov 1943 – Soviets drive Germans back to Kiev (in the Ukraine) </li></ul><ul><li>June 6, 1944 – D-Day – The invasion of Normandy in France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of the end for Germans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dec 1944 – Battle of the Bulge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans last offensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterattack US forces through the Ardennes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 1944 – Soviets assault Berlin. VE Day. </li></ul>