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Western Civilization Lecture 6


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Western Civilization Lecture 6

  1. 1. Western Civilization Session 6 Exploration, Enlightenment and Baroque IS-VNU Mr. Mike Beard
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Age of Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque Art and Music </li></ul>Western Civilization
  3. 3. <ul><li>Portuguese Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>1325–1357 Afonso IV encouraged maritime commerce and ordered the first explorations. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Routes through West Africa controlled by Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>1488 - Bartolomeu Dias became 1 st European to sail around the Southern tip of Africa to establish trade with India and Asia while avoiding Muslim controlled trade routes. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Age of Exploration
  4. 4. <ul><li>Portuguese Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Caravel - a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century </li></ul><ul><li>The sails gave it speed and the capacity for sailing to windward (beating). </li></ul><ul><li>Caravels were much used by the Portuguese for the oceanic exploration voyages during the 15th and 16th centuries in the age of discovery. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Age of Exploration
  5. 5. <ul><li>Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims controlled trade routes though the Middle East and Portugal controlled route around Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus wanted to discover a Western route to India believing the world to be round not flat </li></ul><ul><li>1492 – Columbus discovered the “New World” though he was convinced until his death that he reached India. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Age of Exploration
  6. 6. <ul><li>Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>The discovery of this “New World” led to the establishment of Spanish colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese over land rights </li></ul><ul><li>1494 - Treaty of Tordesillas divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Portuguese and the Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO </li></ul>Western Civilization The Age of Exploration
  7. 7. <ul><li>Rich land owners (lords) granted land usage to certain people (vassals) in exchange for service (sometimes requiring vassals to fight for their lords). </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately the king is at the top of this system and had ultimate control </li></ul><ul><li>It was a system with very sharp distinctions between classes of people and was full of injustices </li></ul>Western Civilization European Feudalsim
  8. 8. <ul><li>Enlightenment Ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority of Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Declining Influence of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Rights and Freedom </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  9. 9. <ul><li>Individualism, Relativism, </li></ul><ul><li>and Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism – emphasized the importance of the individual and his inborn rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism – the concept that different cultures, beliefs, ideas, and value systems had equal merit. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalism – the conviction that with the power of reason, humans could arrive at truth and improve the world. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Thirty Years’ War </li></ul><ul><li>Questioned of the justness of absolute monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Idea of the authority of European divine right was weakened. </li></ul><ul><li>War, which broke out in 1618 when Bohemian Protestants revolted against their incoming Catholic king. The ensuing battle between Protestants and Catholics spread into Germany, and over the course of the next thirty years, nearly a third of the German population was killed. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  11. 11. <ul><li>Francis Bacon (1561-1626) </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo had long said that observation was a necessary element of the scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon solidifies Galileo's view in his development of his philosophy of science. </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive Method – Observation and Reason </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  12. 12. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a system of doubting everything and using reason alone to establish a system of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think therefore I am” </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  13. 13. <ul><li>Isaac Newton (1642–1727) </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted experiments in physics and math that revealed a number of natural laws that had previously been credited to divine forces </li></ul><ul><li>Principia Mathematica (1687) </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Force of Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Established 3 Laws of Motion </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  14. 14. <ul><li>Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish philosopher from Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>Spinoza called into question the tenets of both Judaism and Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in God but denied that the Bible was divinely inspired and rejected the concept of miracles and the religious supernatural </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed that ethics determined by rational thought were more important as a guide to conduct than was religion </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  15. 15. <ul><li>The Enlightenment in England </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>British empiricist </li></ul><ul><li>The mind was a blank slate – we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception </li></ul><ul><li>All people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend his “Life, health, Liberty, or Possessions&quot; </li></ul>Western Civilization Renaissance Music
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Enlightenment in England </li></ul><ul><li>David Hume (1711–1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested that our own senses are fallible, bringing all observations and truths into question. </li></ul><ul><li>Very influential to others, such as Immanuel Kant, and was instrumental in the shift away from rationalist thought that ended the Enlightenment. </li></ul>Western Civilization Renaissance Music
  17. 17. <ul><li>The Enlightenment of France </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted social and political change by means of satire and criticism. </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire’s satires exposed injustices and appealed to a wide range of readers. </li></ul><ul><li>His short novel Candide is regarded as one of the seminal works in history </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  18. 18. <ul><li>The Enlightenment of France </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopédie </li></ul><ul><li>Published in France between 1751 and 1772 </li></ul><ul><li>The Encyclopédie is famous above all for representing the thought of the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Denis Diderot was the chief editor </li></ul><ul><li>Many French Enlightenment thinkers contributed articles including Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  19. 19. <ul><li>Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Skeptics questioned whether human society could really be perfected through the use of reason </li></ul><ul><li>Denied the ability of rational thought to reveal universal truths. </li></ul><ul><li>Their philosophies revolved around the idea that the perceived world is relative to the beholder and, as such, no one can be sure whether any truths actually exist. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  20. 20. <ul><li>Immanuel Kant </li></ul><ul><li>Took skepticism to its greatest lengths, arguing that man could truly know neither observed objects nor metaphysical concepts; </li></ul><ul><li>Universal truths are impossible. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Enlightenment
  21. 21. <ul><li>Baroque Art </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily influenced by the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of Renaissance humanism and realism </li></ul>Western Civilization Baroque
  22. 22. <ul><li>Great drama </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, deep color, </li></ul><ul><li>Intense light and dark shadows </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque artists chose the most dramatic point, the moment when the action was occurring </li></ul>Western Civilization Baroque Painting Artemesia Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1614–20
  23. 23. <ul><li>Rembrandt </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Painter </li></ul><ul><li>Self-portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Biblical Scenes </li></ul>Western Civilization Baroque Painting
  24. 24. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Rembrant
  25. 25. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Rembrant Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem, c. 1630
  26. 26. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Rembrant Abraham and Isaac, 1634
  27. 27. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Rembrant Crucifixion
  28. 28. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Rembrant Rembrandt poses as &quot;The Prodigal Son in the Tavern&quot; — a portrait historié, 1635
  29. 29. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Peter Paul Rubens Self-portrait
  30. 30. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Peter Paul Rubens The Elevation of the Cross , 1611
  31. 31. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Peter Paul Rubens Prometheus Bound, 1611–12
  32. 32. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Peter Paul Rubens The Fall of Man 1628–29
  33. 33. Western Civilization Baroque Painting – Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio Self-portrait
  34. 34. Caravaggio Judith Beheading Holofernes 1598–1599
  35. 35. Caravaggio The Calling of Saint Matthew (1599–1600)
  36. 36. Caravaggio The Crucifixion of Saint Peter, 1601
  37. 37. Caravaggio Amor Vincit Omnia. 1601–1602
  38. 38. Caravaggio Supper at Emmaus, 1601
  39. 39. Caravaggio The Entombment of Christ, (1602–1603)
  40. 40. Caravaggio Conversion of Saint Paul, 1601
  41. 41. <ul><li>Baroque Music </li></ul><ul><li>During the period, composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation </li></ul><ul><li>Made changes in musical notation </li></ul><ul><li>Developed new instrumental playing techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance </li></ul><ul><li>Established opera as a musical genre </li></ul>Western Civilization Baroque
  42. 42. Western Civilization Baroque Music George Frideric Handel Antonio Vivaldi Johann Sebastian Bach