Western Civilization Lecture 5


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Western Civilization Lecture 5

  1. 1. Western Civilization Session 5 Renaissance and Reformation Part 2 IS-VNU Mr. Mike Beard
  2. 2. <ul><li>Renaissance Literature </li></ul><ul><li>The Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Music </li></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Revolution </li></ul>Western Civilization
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli </li></ul><ul><li>Political Treatise </li></ul><ul><li>Written in the Vernacular (Italian) rather than Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Describing Human means of Power not Divine </li></ul><ul><li>Major Theme: Appearances vs. Reality </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli </li></ul><ul><li>“ Criminal Virtue” - When a Prince engages in “criminal” acts for a short yet effective period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Act boldly at beginning of your term </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of a Prince </li></ul><ul><li>A Perceived “Good” Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Not Overly Generous </li></ul><ul><li>Better to be Feared than Loved </li></ul><ul><li>It's not important to keep your word, only to appear to keep your word </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature
  6. 6. <ul><li>William Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest writer of the English Language </li></ul><ul><li>38 Plays </li></ul><ul><li>154 Sonnets (a genre of poetry) </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature
  7. 7. <ul><li>Sonnet 130 </li></ul><ul><li>My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; </li></ul><ul><li>Coral is far more red, than her lips red: </li></ul><ul><li>If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; </li></ul><ul><li>If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. </li></ul><ul><li>I have seen roses damasked, red and white, </li></ul><ul><li>But no such roses see I in her cheeks; </li></ul><ul><li>And in some perfumes is there more delight </li></ul><ul><li>Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. </li></ul><ul><li>I love to hear her speak, yet well I know </li></ul><ul><li>That music hath a far more pleasing sound: </li></ul><ul><li>I grant I never saw a goddess go, </li></ul><ul><li>My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground: </li></ul><ul><li>And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare, </li></ul><ul><li>As any she belied with false compare. </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature
  8. 8. <ul><li>Plays </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MacBeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Othello </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comedies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much Ado About Nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As You Like It </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Histories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard III </li></ul></ul>Western Civilization Literature
  9. 9. <ul><li>Appearances and Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Iago – Trusted advisor of Othello. He APPEARS to do everything out of loyalty to Othello. In REALITY he hates Othello and does everything to destroy him. </li></ul><ul><li>Iago is Shakespeare's best villain because he is so deceptive. He is often compared to Satan. </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature - Othello
  10. 10. <ul><li>Appearances and Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Claudius – Hamlet's uncle. Killed Hamlet's father and married his mother. APPEARS to be a “good” king taking over duties as king after King Hamlet's death. In REALITY his is a murderer who killed King Hamlet to seize Denmark's throne. </li></ul><ul><li>The Play within the Play </li></ul><ul><li>Hamlet organized a play which re-enacted his father's murder. He asked his mother and Claudius to watch the play. He wanted to see how Claudius would react. </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature - Hamlet
  11. 11. <ul><li>Appearances and Reality </li></ul><ul><li>QUEEN GERTRUDE </li></ul><ul><li>Why seems it so particular with thee? </li></ul><ul><li>HAMLET </li></ul><ul><li>Seems, madam! nay it is; I know not 'seems.' </li></ul><ul><li>'Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother, </li></ul><ul><li>Nor customary suits of solemn black, </li></ul><ul><li>Nor windy suspiration of forced breath, </li></ul><ul><li>No, nor the fruitful river in the eye, </li></ul><ul><li>Nor the dejected 'havior of the visage, </li></ul><ul><li>Together with all forms, moods, shapes of grief, </li></ul><ul><li>That can denote me truly: these indeed seem, </li></ul><ul><li>For they are actions that a man might play: </li></ul><ul><li>But I have that within which passeth show; </li></ul><ul><li>These but the trappings and the suits of woe. </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO SCENE </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature - Hamlet
  12. 12. <ul><li>Greeks and Romans </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare gives many of his characters names from ancient Rome. Hamlet is a play set in Denmark yet his character have names like: </li></ul><ul><li>Claudius – A Roman Emperor during the time of Christ. He was suspected of having his nephew (Emperor Caligula) murdered to usurp his throne. </li></ul><ul><li>Polonius – The King's Advisor </li></ul><ul><li>Ophelia – Hamlet's girlfirend and Polonius' daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Horatio – Hamlet's best friend </li></ul><ul><li>Laertes – Ophelia's brother </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature - Hamlet
  13. 13. <ul><li>Greeks and Romans </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare also wrote several plays set in the ancient world such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony and Cleopatra </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>Coriolanus </li></ul><ul><li>Titus Andronicus </li></ul><ul><li>Timon of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Troilus and Cressida </li></ul>Western Civilization Literature - Shakespeare
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to Corruption in the Western Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Church Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption of the Popes </li></ul><ul><li>Concern over the extreme wealth and power obtained by the Catholic Church </li></ul>Western Civilization Religion
  15. 15. <ul><li>Pre-Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>John Wycliffe (1328-84) </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated translating the Bible into vernacular languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Translated Bible into English </li></ul><ul><li>Critical of the Pope and Church hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>After he died, the Catholic Church declared him a heretic, dug up his bones and had them burned </li></ul>Western Civilization Religion – The Reformation
  16. 16. <ul><li>Pre-Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>John Hus (1396-1415) </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke out against indulgences and the Crusades – Taught that no Pope or Bishop had the right to start a war in the name of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Three of his followers were beheaded for speaking against indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Declared guilty of heresy by the Catholic Church in 1415. He was executed by being burned alive. </li></ul>Western Civilization Religion – The Reformation
  17. 17. <ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546) </li></ul><ul><li>Augustinian Monk – Heavily influenced by the writings of St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreed with the practice of Indulgences on theological grounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Taught that forgiveness of sin could not be purchased with money. </li></ul><ul><li>1517 - Nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the All-Saints Church in Wittenberg, Germany. </li></ul>Western Civilization Religion – The Reformation
  18. 18. <ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546) </li></ul><ul><li>Justification by Faith Alone </li></ul><ul><li>After extensive studies of St. Augustine and the New Testament (especially the letters of the Apostle Paul), Luther was convinced that we are “Justified” (made right with God) by Grace through Faith alone. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Reformation Augustine as depicted by Sandro Botticelli (c. 1480)
  19. 19. <ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546) </li></ul><ul><li>Justification by Faith Alone </li></ul><ul><li>“ All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.” (Romans 3:23) </li></ul><ul><li>“ None is righteous, no not one” (Romans 3:10) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Man believes in his heart and is justified” (Romans 10:10) </li></ul><ul><li>“ For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God— not by works, so that no one can boast.” (Ephesians 2:8–9) </li></ul>Western Civilization Religion – The Reformation
  20. 20. <ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546) </li></ul><ul><li>The Diet of Worms </li></ul><ul><li>General Assembly of the Estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Luther was declared a heretic </li></ul><ul><li>Luther's writings were banned </li></ul><ul><li>A warrant was issued for his arrest </li></ul><ul><li>The Diet declared that it was illegal to give Luther food or shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Permission was given to anyone to kill Luther </li></ul>Western Civilization Religion – The Reformation
  21. 21. <ul><li>A large group of followers (even entire countries) separated from the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Churches that separated from Rome are known the Protestant churches because they “Protested” some doctrines and the authority of the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Violent clashes erupted across Europe between Catholics and Protestants </li></ul>Western Civilization Religion – The Reformation
  22. 22. <ul><li>Mass Music </li></ul><ul><li>The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy. </li></ul>Western Civilization Renaissance Music
  23. 23. <ul><li>Motet </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance motet is a polyphonic musical setting </li></ul><ul><li>The cascading, passing chords created by the interplay between multiple voices, and the absence of a strong or obvious beat, are the features that distinguish medieval and renaissance motet styles. </li></ul>Western Civilization Renaissance Music
  24. 24. <ul><li>Madrigal </li></ul><ul><li>A madrigal is a secular vocal music composition </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, polyphonic madrigals are unaccompanied; the number of voices varies from two to eight, and most frequently from three to six </li></ul><ul><li>Petrarch's poems were often used as lyrics for madrigals </li></ul>Western Civilization Renaissance Music
  25. 25. <ul><li>Revolution of Multiple Discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific revolution was not marked by any single change or discovery but of a series of changes in thought and new discoveries. </li></ul>Western Civilization The Scientific Revolution
  26. 26. <ul><li>Significant Discoveries and Ideas of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>the Sun as the center of the solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Matter is made up of Atoms not basic elements like water, air or fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Planets move in circular motions (orbits) </li></ul>Western Civilization The Scientific Revolution
  27. 27. <ul><li>Significant Scientists of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>Study of Human Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical and Engineering designs </li></ul>Western Civilization The Scientific Revolution
  28. 28. <ul><li>Significant Scientists of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolaus Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe </li></ul>Western Civilization The Scientific Revolution
  29. 29. <ul><li>Significant Scientists of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei </li></ul><ul><li>Improved to the Telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Made many significant astronomical observations </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Copernican Cosmology </li></ul>Western Civilization The Scientific Revolution
  30. 30. <ul><li>Significant Scientists of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Tycho Brahe </li></ul><ul><li>refuted the theory that planets were not in an unchanging state of perfection as previously assumed by Aristotle and Ptolemy </li></ul><ul><li>most accurate astronomical observations of his time, and the data were used by his assistant, Johannes Kepler, to derive the laws of planetary motion </li></ul>Western Civilization The Scientific Revolution
  31. 31. <ul><li>Significant Scientists of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Johannes Kepler </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in connection between the physical and the spiritual </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciled heliocentrism with the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>The first to recognize that images are projected inverted and reversed by the eye's lens onto the retina </li></ul><ul><li>Observed a Supernova </li></ul>Western Civilization The Scientific Revolution
  32. 32. <ul><li>Significant Scientists of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) was an author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Ambroise Paré (c.1510–1590) is considered as one of the fathers of surgery; he was leader in surgical techniques and battlefield medicine, especially the treatment of wounds </li></ul><ul><li>William Harvey (1578–1657) described the circulatory system </li></ul>Western Civilization The Scientific Revolution