CARBOHYDRATES
Types of Carbohydrates• Monosacchrides• Disaccharides  Contain 2 monosacchride units• Polysacchrides  Contain many monosac...
MONOSACCHARIDES Empirical formula:         CH2O Monosaccharides contain:a) C=O group           andb) at least two OH- gr...
Monosaccharides• Three Carbons =   Triose• Four Carbons =    Tetrose• Five Carbons =    Pentose• Six Carbons =     Hexose ...
Monosaccharides• Aldoses are monosacchrides with an  aldehyde group and many hydroxyl (-  OH) groups.• Ketoses are monosac...
D notation         O   H C   H C OH   H C OH      CH2OH              Right = D   6
D-GLUCOSEThe form of glucose that is found in nature is known as D-glucose. To form the cyclic structure, connect the fir...
Cyclic Structures• Monosaccharides with 5-6 carbon atoms form  cyclic structures• The hydroxyl group on C-5 reacts with th...
β                                  βD-glucose can cyclize in twoways forming either furanose orpyranose structures
D-Glucose     CH2OH               CH2OH          o                   o    OH   β     OH                  OHOH             ...
Fructose ring structures
POLYSACCHARIDES  o Monosaccharides can undergo condensation  reaction to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.          ...
MALTOSE= α-D glucose + α-D glucose  α-1,4-glycoside linkage
LACTOSE= β-D galactose + β-D glucose      β-1,4-glycoside linkage
SUCROSE= β-D fructose + α-D glucose      a-1,2-glycoside linkage
POLYSACCHARIDES  o Monosaccharides can undergo condensation  reaction to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.          ...
POLYSACCHARIDES                   Amylose       Straight chain   α-1,4    Water solubleStarch α-glucose                   ...
Starch  Amylose  α-glucoseStraight chain    α-1,4Water soluble
Starch Amylopectin   α-glucoseBranched chain  α-1,4+α-1,6Water insoluble
Glycogen              α-glucose           Branched chain             α-1,4+α-1,6           Water insoluble
β-glucose Straight chainβ-1,4 + H-bondsWater insoluble
MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF POLYSACCHARIDES           IN THE HUMAN BODYCarbohydrates have many uses:c)They provide energy: bread, c...
Dietary fibreWater insolubleCellulose, ligninWhole grain foods, brown rice, carrots, tomatoesAbsorb waterBulk moving f...
Carbohydrates (1)
Carbohydrates (1)
Carbohydrates (1)
Carbohydrates (1)
Carbohydrates (1)
Carbohydrates (1)
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Carbohydrates (1)

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IBDP SL Human Biochem Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates (1)

  1. 1. CARBOHYDRATES
  2. 2. Types of Carbohydrates• Monosacchrides• Disaccharides Contain 2 monosacchride units• Polysacchrides Contain many monosacchride units 2
  3. 3. MONOSACCHARIDES Empirical formula: CH2O Monosaccharides contain:a) C=O group andb) at least two OH- groups C5H10O5 pentoses (e.g. ridose) C6H10O6 hexoses (e.g. glucose) They have between 3 and 6 carbon atoms. They have many structural isomers. Several carbon atoms are chiral and give rise to optical isomerism. Chain and ring structures are possible.
  4. 4. Monosaccharides• Three Carbons = Triose• Four Carbons = Tetrose• Five Carbons = Pentose• Six Carbons = Hexose 4
  5. 5. Monosaccharides• Aldoses are monosacchrides with an aldehyde group and many hydroxyl (- OH) groups.• Ketoses are monosacchrides with a ketone group and many hydroxyl (-OH) groups. 5
  6. 6. D notation O H C H C OH H C OH CH2OH Right = D 6
  7. 7. D-GLUCOSEThe form of glucose that is found in nature is known as D-glucose. To form the cyclic structure, connect the first and the Figure 1: Straight fifth carbon chain formula of D- (condensation) glucose.
  8. 8. Cyclic Structures• Monosaccharides with 5-6 carbon atoms form cyclic structures• The hydroxyl group on C-5 reacts with the aldehyde group or ketone group O o 8
  9. 9. β βD-glucose can cyclize in twoways forming either furanose orpyranose structures
  10. 10. D-Glucose CH2OH CH2OH o o OH β OH OHOH OH OH α OH OHα-D-Glucose β-D-Glucose 10
  11. 11. Fructose ring structures
  12. 12. POLYSACCHARIDES o Monosaccharides can undergo condensation reaction to form disaccharides and polysaccharides. Condensation CondensationMonosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
  13. 13. MALTOSE= α-D glucose + α-D glucose α-1,4-glycoside linkage
  14. 14. LACTOSE= β-D galactose + β-D glucose β-1,4-glycoside linkage
  15. 15. SUCROSE= β-D fructose + α-D glucose a-1,2-glycoside linkage
  16. 16. POLYSACCHARIDES o Monosaccharides can undergo condensation reaction to form disaccharides and polysaccharides. Condensation CondensationMonosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
  17. 17. POLYSACCHARIDES Amylose Straight chain α-1,4 Water solubleStarch α-glucose Amylopectin Branched α-1,4+α-1,6 Water insolubleGlycogen α-glucose More branched α-1,4+α-1,6 Water insolubleCellulose β-glucose Straight chain β-1,4+H-bonds Water insoluble Hydrolyzed by cellulose > found only in plant eating mammals > cannot be digested by humans
  18. 18. Starch Amylose α-glucoseStraight chain α-1,4Water soluble
  19. 19. Starch Amylopectin α-glucoseBranched chain α-1,4+α-1,6Water insoluble
  20. 20. Glycogen α-glucose Branched chain α-1,4+α-1,6 Water insoluble
  21. 21. β-glucose Straight chainβ-1,4 + H-bondsWater insoluble
  22. 22. MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF POLYSACCHARIDES IN THE HUMAN BODYCarbohydrates have many uses:c)They provide energy: bread, corn, cereals, rice,potatoes, fruits.d)The store energy: starch is stored in the liver ofthe animals in the form of glycogen. Glycogen ishydrolyzed to glucose.e)They used as precursors for other importantbiological molecules (nucleic acids)f)They are used as dietary fibres: cellulose,lignin, pectin in fruits, grains, vegetables
  23. 23. Dietary fibreWater insolubleCellulose, ligninWhole grain foods, brown rice, carrots, tomatoesAbsorb waterBulk moving food through digestive systemWater solublePectinOatmeal, beans, peas,lentils, most fruitsFermented by bacteria to carboxylic acidsStabilize blood glucose levels (prevent diabetes)Stimulate production of antibodiesPrevent:ConstipationIrritable bowelObesityHaemorrhoids

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