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16-Mar-12 1
Solar Desalination
Prof. Moustafa Elsayed
16-Mar-12 2
Introduction
WHO: 480 millions of human beings are suffering
from acute lack of water
5 million died per year due to this
23 million m3 seawater is desalinated every
day
46 000 m3 (0.02 %) is produced by means of
renweable energy
16-Mar-12 3
Solar Desalination Methods
Solar Thermal Methods
Solar Power Methods
16-Mar-12 4
Solar Thermal Methods
Generation of heat energy from sun
Use heat energy in a desalination process
16-Mar-12 5
Solar Thermal Methods
Solar still
Solar diffusion still
Multi-effect evaporation
Multi stage flash evaporation
Humidification-dehumidification
Freezing using absorption cooling process
16-Mar-12 6
Solar Power Methods
Vapor compression
Reverse osmosis
Freezing
Electro dialysis
16-Mar-12 7
Energy Requirements
Method kJ/kg PR
Reserve Osmosis 30 77
Electrodialysis 50 46
Absorption vacuum freeze 63 37
Vacuum freeze/ vapor compression 102 25
Multi-effect, multistage distillation 125 19
Multistage, flash/vertical tube distillation 175 13
Vapor compression distillation 186 12
Vertical tube evaporator distillation 204 11
Multistage flash distillation 251 9
Single-effect roof-type solar still 4350 0.53
16-Mar-12 8
Solar Still
A well-designed
solar still can
produce 2 to 4
liters (or quarts)
of water per
square meter of
basin area
16-Mar-12 9
Arrangements of Solar Stills
16-Mar-12 10
Productivity of Solar Still
16-Mar-12 11
Output of a solar still
Q = E x G x A/2.3
Daily output = 0.30 x 18.0 x 1/2.3
= 2.3 liters (per square meter)
yearly output: approximately one cubic meter
per square meter
16-Mar-12 12
Heat Fluxes in Solar Still
16-Mar-12 13
Greenhouse-Integrated Stills
16-Mar-12 14
Greenhouse-Integrated Stills
Solar still
– o Roof-integrated
– o Only partly light-transparent
Greenhouse
– o Lowered temperature
– o Less water demand
Production: 1 litre/m2day
16-Mar-12 15
Double Basin Solar Still
16-Mar-12 16
Wick-Type Solar Still
16-Mar-12 17
Cascade-Type Solar Still
16-Mar-12 18
Cover Cooling Solar Still
16-Mar-12 19
Double Effect Solar Still
16-Mar-12 20
Single Effect Diffusion Solar
Still
16-Mar-12 21
Multi-Effect Diffusion Solar
Still
16-Mar-12 22
Single Stage Evaporation
Desalination
16-Mar-12 23
Multi-Effect Evaporation
Desalination
16-Mar-12 24
Multi-Effect Evaporation
Desalination
Water production > 100 m3/day
Seawater evaporates stepwise by heat transfer
from tubes with condensing steam
Primary steam source is produced externally
16-Mar-12 25
Solar Multi-Effect
Humidification Unit
16-Mar-12 26
Solar Multi-Effect
Humidification Unit
Development: Technical University of Munich
(1999)
Principle: the evaporation of water and the
condensation of steam to and from humid air,
that flows in a circuit driven by natural
convection between condenser and evaporator.
Pilot plant: Canary Islands, Spain, operating
since 1992
16-Mar-12 27
Abhu Dhabi Solar
Desalination Plant
Location: the United Arab Emirates
Purpose: demonstration unit.
Commissioned in 1984, with an average
of 85 m3/day of fresh water using sea
water with a salinity of 55,000 ppm.
Sub-systems: the solar collector field,
heat accumulator and evaporator.
16-Mar-12 28
Abhu Dhabi Solar
Desalination Plant
Multiple effect stack-type (MES)
evaporator of a rated capacity of 120
m3/day
An array of evacuated tube, flat plate
collectors with a total absorber area of
1,862 m2.
A thermally stratified heat accumulator,
with a capacity of 300 m3
16-Mar-12 29
Abhu Dhabi Solar
Desalination Plant
The main grid supplies electricity
required by the different pumps.
The performance of the collector field
and evaporator sub-systems have not
suffered in performance decline to any
appreciable degree up to today.
Water cost: US$7/m3 to US$10/m3
16-Mar-12 30
Multi-Stage Flash
Evaporation
16-Mar-12 31
Multi-Stage Flash
Evaporation
Global water production ≈ 10 million
m3/day
Heated seawater is flash-evaporated in
low-pressure chamber
16-Mar-12 32
(MSF) driven by solar pond
Combining solar pond technology with
desalination technologies
The reject concentrate from the primary
desalination process provides make-up water to
the salinity gradient
Environmental issues:
– Reusing the brine concentrate thereby negating the
need for disposal (zero discharge)
– Pollution-free renewable energy for the desalting
process.
16-Mar-12 33
(MSF) driven by solar pond
16-Mar-12 34
Solar Single-Stage Flash
Evaporation Unit
16-Mar-12 35
Solar Single-Stage Flash
Evaporation Unit
Development: Technical University of
Munich (1999)
Sections: pressurized section and an
ambient pressure section
16-Mar-12 36
Humidification-
Dehumidification Desalination
16-Mar-12 37
Humidification-
Dehumidification Desalination
16-Mar-12 38
Humidification-
Dehumidification Desalination
1st step
– Heating from 25°C to 50°C
– Humidified to saturation (20 g/kg),
temperature decreases to 23°C
15th step
– Heating from 58°C to 78°C
– Humidified to saturation (148 g/kg),
temperature decreases to 60°C
16-Mar-12 39
Humidification-
Dehumidification Desalination
16-Mar-12 40
Humidification-
Dehumidification Desalination
16-Mar-12 41
Humidification-
Dehumidification Desalination
16-Mar-12 42
Humidification-
Dehumidification Desalination
16-Mar-12 43
Freezing Desalination Using
Absorption Refrigeration
16-Mar-12 44
Solar Power Desalination
Vapor Compression
16-Mar-12 45
Vapor Compression
16-Mar-12 46
Freezing Desalination
16-Mar-12 47
Reverse Osmosis Desalination
16-Mar-12 48
Reverse Osmosis Desalination
16-Mar-12 49
Solar RO Desalination
The plant was designed and constructed in
1995 by Water Re-use Promotion Center
(Japan)
Heat and electricity by solar energy
Solar collector: 3 units of evacuated-tube
collectors each 4 m wide by 1 m long.
Photovoltaic power generation system
Fresh water production: 40 liters/hour, on
average.
16-Mar-12 50
Solar RO Desalination
16-Mar-12 51
Solar RO Desalination
16-Mar-12 52
Cost of Desalination Methods
16-Mar-12 53
Cost of Desalination Methods
16-Mar-12 54
Conclusions-1
Solar Desalination is a cheap way to
produce fresh water.
There are several available solar systems
for the production of fresh water from
saline or brackish water.
16-Mar-12 55
Conclusions-2
The preference of one solar desalination
method over other methods depends on:
Location
Amount of water to be produced
Quality of water to be desalinated
Quality of water to be produced
16-Mar-12 56
Thank you

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