What's Hidden In The Midden?


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Students use Mount Vernon's archaeological site George Washington's Midden (a fancy word for trash) to study objects, archaeology, math and science. The artifacts excavated from the midden provide an insight into daily life, diet and furnishings during George and Martha Washington's life.

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What's Hidden In The Midden?

  1. 1.         What’s Hidden In The Midden? Intended Grade Level: 4th or 5th Lesson Purpose: The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the science of archeology and its role in retelling history. Children will view archaeology in action through a video or book introduction, use primary documents, get inspired by a video about an 18th-century earthworm, and participate in a mock archaeological dig of the midden found at Mount Vernon. Students will collect, analyze, interpret and make presentations on the artifacts collected and cataloged at the mock dig. You can learn more about the midden excavated at Mount Vernon and about the 120,000 artifacts uncovered during the dig at http://mountvernonmidden.org. Lesson Objectives: Lesson 1: Introduction to an Archaeological Dig  Students will be able to define: archaeologist, artifact, dig, primary source, secondary source, field sheet and midden (which will be mentioned in some suggested resources)  Students will discuss how items in their world will be interpreted in the future. Lesson 2: Primary and Secondary Sources  Students will identify and discuss purchases made by George Washington for Mount Vernon in 1763. (Primary Source Document)  Students will prepare through research and show the use and necessity of one item from the Robert Cary and Company Invoice. (Primary Source Document)  Students will produce a reassembled artifact in a simulation of reconstructing a dinner plate. Lesson 3, Part 1: What’s Hidden in the Midden?  Students will use a Field Catalog Sheet and a Grid Record Sheet to describe a specific artifact.
  2. 2.          Students will work in small teams to analyze, record and present their findings on a specific artifact. Lesson 3, Part 2: What’s Hidden in the Midden?  Students will transfer information presented in previous lessons to the mock dig through their completion of field catalog sheets, grid records and the construction of a descriptive narrative with teammates. Lesson 3, Part 3: What’s Hidden in the Midden?  Students will research and develop a presentation about the artifacts found in their team’s assigned grid and make a presentation to the class.  Students will evaluate the activities and information presented in this unit on an Exit Evaluation Form. Curriculum Standards: Common Core Reading Standards for Informational Text Grade 4 Key Ideas and Details: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Integration of knowledge and ideas Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. Reading Standards for Literature Grade 4 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.
  3. 3.         Writing Standards Grade 4 Text Types and Purposes: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. Production and Distribution of Writing: With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. Mathematics Grade 4: Measurement and Data: Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ... Measurement and Data: Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. Measurement and Data: Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
  4. 4.         Timeframe: This could take three to five class periods depending on whether or not the class participates in the mock dig and interprets, analyzes, and makes presentations on data and artifact collection Materials: Material lists will be presented at the end of each lesson. Grading Suggestions: Since this unit can be done in its entirety or in segments, grades can be taken on:  Participation  Written assignments  Individual or team assignments  Total project  Testing of definitions as presented in “What’s Hidden in the Midden?”  As a subjective score  In the form of a rubric   This has been adapted from a lesson by Lisa K. Schisler, George Washington Teachers Institute 2011.
  5. 5.         Lesson 1: Introduction to an Archaeological Dig Background: Archaeology is the act of finding and uncovering information about how people lived in the past. By digging in places where people have lived and worked in the past, we can understand what life was like in their time. Our focus in this project will be the Colonial period and specifically the life of George Washington and his family. The video (or book) will give students an idea of how a dig site looks, the kinds of artifacts typically found when excavating in settlements and how archaeologists record and interpret their findings. Step 1: Choose one of the below resources to introduce your students to an archaeological dig. Most of the resources listed deal with digs at settlements and focus on the artifacts that are used to interpret lifestyle, structures and household items. The Jamestown resource will include human skeletal remains, which will not be the focus of the Mount Vernon midden presented later on in this series of lessons. Free Web Access “Digging Archaeology” TeacherTube video Historic Jamestowne “Where Are We Digging Now?” video DVD (Available through Colonial Williamsburg): The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Archive Series Colonial Life Through a Lens: Search for a Century 1980 Extra Feature: Doorway to the Past Book (Available through Colonial Williamsburg) Uncovering History at Colonial Williamsburg Archaeology for Young Explorers Patricia Samford David L. Ribblett 1995 The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
  6. 6.         Step 2: A discussion to follow the viewing or reading should include the following vocabulary which will appear throughout the lessons:  Archaeologist  Artifact  Dig or dig site  Primary source  Secondary source  Midden – (not mentioned in all resources) a Colonial trash pit  Field sheet – used to record information about artifacts at the dig site Step 3*: List 10 items found in your bedroom on top of your dresser or nightstand. What could an archaeologist learn about you 200 years from now? Step 4: Complete the Archaeology Word Find – Attached *Uncovering History at Colonial Williamsburg: Archaeology for Young Explorers; Samford, Patricia, Ribblett, David L. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1995.
  7. 7.         Mount Vernon Midden t s v a n b w f y w f h w m n j c k e b u k d a o i t l i g a l a i r d f s l x e u x d r c r d f w n h r f q l o f d c x s c m i i o e a o d s f e u o t v h n t t n r w s h b n k u p n g a i r i w z h c i f y u o t u s e g a x w e r d i m p o t g o i o d b b e a y e p n v i b n m y l f v t e p y v c d h z h i s t o r y s l h b e p i p n i a r d g x e m a p e g r o e g g r i d i r k p z b k z e q e j y w f j s x a s b q t x n i x i a q r i t i z archaeologist artifact digsite drainpipe fieldsheet george grid grove history midden mount origin research south vernon Washington
  8. 8.         Solution T + V + + + + + + W F H + M + + C + E + + + + A + I T + I + A + A + R + + S + + E U + D + + R + F + N H + + + L O + D + + + C + I I O E + O D S + E + + T + H N T T N R + S H + N + + + N G A I R I + + H C + + + + + T U S E G A + + E R + + + + O + G O I O + + + E A + + + N + I + N M + L + V T E + + + + D + + H I S T O R Y S + + + E P I P N I A R D G + E + + + E G R O E G G R I D I R + + + + + + + + + + + + + + S + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + T + + (Over,Down,Direction) ARCHAEOLOGIST(1,3,SE) ARTIFACT(8,8,NW) DIGSITE(2,11,NE) DRAINPIPE(9,12,W) FIELDSHEET(11,1,S) GEORGE(6,13,W) GRID(7,13,E) GROVE(7,13,NE) HISTORY(5,11,E) MIDDEN(14,1,S) MOUNT(6,10,NW) ORIGIN(10,5,SW) RESEARCH(12,13,N) SOUTH(12,5,N) VERNON(3,1,SE) WASHINGTON(10,1,SW)
  9. 9.         Lesson 2: Primary and Secondary Sources Background: A primary source is defined as an artifact or document that was created or produced during the time period studied. In other words, it’s the “real thing.” A secondary source is one that is interpreted or analyzed from the primary source. An example might be a newspaper article written about an event. There is some room for error! George Washington was a meticulous note-keeper, journal writer, and business manager. We are able to confirm most of the findings at Mount Vernon due to Washington’s record keeping. We will view primary source documentation in this lesson in preparation for the mock dig. All of George Washington’s orders for goods from England and the corresponding invoice, sent with the object when it was shipped to Mount Vernon, are online and searchable at http://mountvernonmidden.org. Step 1: Primary Document – Invoice of Goods to Robert Cary and Company; Mount Vernon 27 September, 1763 (http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/GEWN) Having given students copies of the original invoice prepared by George Washington to a merchant in England, allow students time to preview the document and identify all items they recognize. This can be done as a whole group, in small groups or in partners. Generate a list of these items. Categorize them into kitchen, personal, household, farm and other. Step 2: Select one or more items to research. This might include an image, definition and example of uses. Prepare a tri-fold card for a quick small group or whole class presentation. (Tri-fold template follows Lesson 2.) Step 3: Give students a copy of the 18th-century dinner plate image. Make predictions about its origin. Ask students to discuss whether or not George Washington would have had a similar plate on his table. Share thoughts and responses. Refer to the collections department page at www.mountvernon.org . The original collection is a primary source. The first image given to them could be a secondary source. It is the correct time period? We know from invoices and artifacts that Washington owned fine dishes from the China. However, do we know that he owned this style or pattern?
  10. 10.         Conclusion: Primary sources give the best evidence of the history and life of George Washington. Materials:  Plate Image  Primary Document: Invoice  Tri-fold template
  11. 11.         Enclosure Invoice of Goods to Robert Cary & Company [Mount Vernon] 27 Septr 1763. Invoice of Goods to be sent by Robert Cary Esqr. and Company for the use of George Washington—Virga 25 M 4d. Nails 50 M 8d. Ditto 50 M 10d. Ditto 25 M [254] 20d. Ditto 1 dozn very course, large & strong Carpenters Gouges 1 dozn narrow headg Chissels fit for strg course Wk 6 large broad axes—of the best k[in]d 6 cheap Iron (varnished) Locks for Chamber Doors—6 Inches by 3½ to have different Keys 1 large Iron Do for Street door 9 Inches by 5½ 2 lathing hammers 6 large Wheat Sieves—to be so open as to admit all the Grain through in Ridling, but to retain the Heads, broken Straw, trash &ca 6 very small ditto to retain all the Grain and Chaff, but to riddle through the Dust, & dirt 2 pr horse Scissar’s 6 Augers, sized from ¾ Inch to 1½ Inch 6 best steel Garden spades 2 pr neat Steel Snuffers & St[an]ds 200 yds welch Cotton 2 piecs. Blanketting 4 dozn pr of the largest & best plaid Hose 3 dozn pr midling sized Do 2 dozn Pee Jackets & Breeches (blue) from a large size to a midling Ditto 500 Ells Oznabrigs 4 ps. Rolls 2 ps. Irish Linn @1/3 2 ps. ditto do 1/6 1 ps. ditto do 3/6 1 ps. ditto do 5/ 1 ps. Holland 6/ pr Ell 50 Yds fine Russia drab 2 ps. superfine Nankeen, Button’s, twist, & thread for Do 10 lb. Shoe thread 20 lb. bro: Ditto 3 lb. whited bro: Do 4 ps. diaper Tape—not filleting 2 ps. narrow do 6 ps. beggars tape 1 groce common shirt buttons 2 Mens Knett Night Caps 4 Oz. India Cotton 2 Oz. Barbers silk—fine 2 oz. Chinese Silk 2 Oz. bloon silk 4 Oz. Cotton thread—2 fine 2 Course 4 Oz. french thrd for weavg No. 26 8 dozn bobbins 1 ps. Jackeynot Muslin—6 yds of wch to be charged to Miss Custis’s acct 6 Knetting Needles, and 6 Steel Knetting pins of different sizes 1 ps. of blew ferret 1 ps. of white Ditto 1 lb. sewing silk sorted 2 oz. of which to be white 1000
  12. 12.         hair pins 6 fine Ivory Combs 6 fine horn Ditto 1 ps. black Ribbon for the hair 1 large box wafers 6 pr worsted hose @7/6 1 dozn pr Mens large thread hose @1/6 12 loaves single refind Sugar 12 ditto dble refind Ditto 1 Jarr best Raisons 1 large Pott best Currants 25 lb. Jordan Almonds ½ lb. Mace ½ lb. Nutts ½ lb. Cinnamon ½ lb. Cloves 6 lb. white Pepper A Case of Pickles containing 12 bottles, 4 of wch to be Fren[c]h Olives, 3 of Capers, 3 India Mangoes & 2 of Mushrooms 1 Cheder Cheese of about 30 lb. 2 dble Gloster Ditto 12 bottles best Durham Mustd 6 lb. White, 6 lb. bro. Sugar Candy 6 bottles Turlingtons Balsam 1 whole huntg Whip 2 Snaffle Bridles @2/ 2 ditto Do @ [255] 3/ 2 bitting bridles for breaking horses—Note if it requires different Bitting Bridles for Saddle Horses, and Carriage Horses pray send me one for the former, and two as above for the latter 1 Mans best hunting Sadle 2 Sadle Cloaths—best kind 2 Cirsingles 4 dble Girths 4 Single Ditto 1 doz. Halters—best kind 1 compleat sett Chariot Harness for Six (middle sized) Horses to be strong, yet light and to have my crest 4 leather bottle sliders 200 fathom of leadg line—of a size ⅜ in diameter 6 best Bed cords 1 Sett of Shoe Brushes 2 groce best Porter in Bottles last year it was very good 6 groce empty Bottles 20 groce best Corks 1 dozn course Sieves 6 hair brooms 1 dozn best blackg Balls 1 Common horn Lanthorn 1 doz. white stone Wash Basons & bottles to Ditto 1 dozn white Stone Chambr Pots 4 Neat brass Candlesticks with broad bottoms to them 100 Wt white Lead gd in Oyl 2 block tin Coffee Pots—to hold a pint & ½ & 3 pints 3 pr Mens best buck stitchd topd Gloves 3 pr Ditto tand Ditto—to be la: & long fingered 3 pr Womens white french kid Gloves 3 pr ditto colourd Do 3 pr white kid Mitts 3 pr coloured Ditto French 1 Fashe Tea kitchen (Copper) 2 dozn Splinter locks difft sizes 50 lb. white Bisquet 1 Neat silver Pencil—exactly Six Inches long, to have the Inches and parts of an Inch marked thereon and to be open at both ends
  13. 13.         to be had of Mr Didsbury pr Letter to him— 2 pr Mens neat Shoes 2 pr ditto stitchd & Rashd Pumps 6 pr Servts Shoes 1 pr strong Shoe Boots 3 pr bla: Calliman. Pumps Womens 1 pr bla. Sattin Ditto 1 pr white Embroiderd Do 6 Mens felt hats—best sort & lar: 4 Mens Castor Hats @5/ 2 Ditto Do @7/6 2 best beaver Do 24/ 150 sqrs. Window Glass 11 by 9 Inches 1 dozn Mellon Glasses 15 lb. Putty 2 Elbow Chairs 12 plain setting Ditto—the leather to cover the Frames—to be large and strong, & not to exceed 15/ 6 Windsor Chairs A handsome plain paper for a Room 18 by 16 feet, and 6 feet pitch above Chair board 1 travelling Razor case—to contn two Razors (of the very best kind) Strop, brush, box, Powder &ca To be bought of Mrs Shelbey in Dean Street Soho—A Workd Muslin Apron, handf & Ruffles—not to exceed £5 1 ps. of broad plain Joing Nett 2 handsome breast Flowers A handsome [256] Fan A black silk dressed Hood 2 yds velvet Ribbon 1 ps. fashe white 6d. Ribbon 1 ps. Ditto 3d. Do 6 Skelleton Wiers a black dressd Handkerf 2 pr black silk open Mitts To be bought of Mrs Harris in new Bond Street—1 Silver Tabby Petticoat 1 puckerd Petticoat of a fashe colour 1 India Worked Muslin G[ol]d 1 White lutestring Sacque & Coat sprigd with white—all to be made by Mrs Fairfax’s Measure 100 wt hop clover seed (clover seed last year came chargd at a most enormous price) 1 Bushel of St Foine fresh & Good 10 lb. Lucerne 10 lb. Turnip Seed 20/ worth of Garden seeds sorted 1 Peck early Peas N.B. be so good as to desire yr Seed Merchant to let me have Seed quite fresh and good in their several kinds—We often get those that are bad—the disappointment therefore is much worse & heavier felt than the cost 1 pr midling large Ovalstone knee Buckles 2 dozn Doyleys Rubbers 1 Coffee Mill— best sort 6 Brass Cocks 6 Tin Cans each to hold a Qt 2 pr Silver Necklace strings washed with gold 1 pr best Buckskin Breeches pr measure—to cost—24/ 1 pr Knee buckles proper for Do 1 ps. Irish Linnen @2/6 3 pr worsted Hose course & stg 3 pr
  14. 14.         course strong Shoes middle size 1 Roll Sheet Tin 1 China Plate Basket—or Basket proper for China in
  15. 15.        
  16. 16.         Tri-fold Template Instructions Step 1: Turn an 8 ½ x 11 piece of paper to landscape view. Step 2: Fold paper in half and make a light crease. Reopen. This will be used as a center line. Step 3: Fold side A to center line and crease. Repeat with side B. You know have a tri-fold paper that opens like a door. A B Finished tri-fold. Opens in center like doors.
  17. 17.         Lesson 3: What’s Hidden in the Midden – Part 1 Background: A fictional story about an earthworm who returns to his ancestor’s home (Mount Vernon) to learn about his family’s history will be used to introduce the midden. Information at the end of the narrated slide presentation will introduce some of the terms and definitions necessary for the upcoming mock dig. Students will 1) learn how to use a field catalog sheet, 2) learn how to use a grid record sheet, 3) reconstruct a mock dinner plate and write a short description of one artifact. Step 1: View narrated slide presentation “What’s Hidden in the Midden?” The presentation can be found by searching for “Hidden in the Midden” at www.teachertube.com or by simply clicking here. Discuss what a midden is and how it was used at Mount Vernon. Reference for teachers can be found here. View dig site from Mount Vernon found in the above link. Discuss the types of artifacts that might have been found. Step 2: Distribute copies of the field catalog sheets. Explain to students how to fill out the top of the form:  Date: It’s important to record the date artifacts are found and located. Students will use the date of the mock dig.  Site Retriever: This is the name of each person in a team assigned to a grid at the mock dig.  Unit Designation: This is the letter/number of the grid a team is assigned. Using the image of the picture of the plate from lesson 2, complete, as a group, the artifact description, possible use of the artifact with analysis 1 being done as a whole class for demonstration purposes and analysis 2 after discussion with team members and possible research. Step 3: Distribute copies of the grid record sheet. Display image of the sample grid (Grid G from Mock Dig). Discuss making an accurate drawing of the location of items excavated in that grid, the soil, rock, or ground they were found in along with coloring the background in the grid similar to the one at the
  18. 18.         dig site and an accurate measurement of the perimeter of the grid. This information will be used later in the team’s presentation. Step 4: For a practice prior to the mock dig, divide students into teams of 2 or 3 (considering special needs students and buddies they may need to participate), and complete the assignment. Give each team an “artifact” to use for filling out the field catalog sheet and turn the information into a short descriptive paragraph. For this activity you can use tools, kitchen utensils or hardware such as nuts and bolts. Have each team share their paragraph. Conclusion: At the conclusion of this lesson students will have learned about the Mount Vernon midden, how archaeologists record their finding, and how they report their findings to others. If you choose to create the Mount Vernon South Grove Midden Mock Dig Site, you will continue on to Lesson 3: Parts 2 and 3. Instructions for making a “dig” canvas are included as well as suggestions for acquiring artifacts to complete your mock dig. If not, the presentation about the midden will conclude at Lesson 3: Part 1. Materials List  Field Catalog Sheet  Grid Record Sheet  Photo Image: Mock Dig, Grid G  Digital Presentation: “What’s Hidden in the Midden?” by Lisa K. Schisler  Assorted artifacts such as tools, kitchen utensils, hardware fasteners (nuts, bolts, washers, etc.) for practice team project.
  19. 19.        
  20. 20.         Name _____________________________ Grid Record Sheet
  21. 21.         Lesson 3: What’s Hidden in the Midden? – Part 2 Background: Students will participate in a mock dig of the midden at Mount Vernon. The gym floor is an excellent choice for this activity. Students should be divided into groups of 2 or 3 to investigate, record, discuss, and present their findings. They will complete a field catalog sheet, grid record sheet, and a team descriptive narrative of their findings. If a photograph is taken of each grid on the mock canvas, the image can be displayed through a projector for the team to refer to while making their presentations. Step 1: Assign teams to grids. Discuss the need to be careful when handling artifacts and returning them to their approximate location on the grid. It is a good idea to supply the teams with an object to be a place marker for artifacts while they are being handled. Small, one-inch squares of colored construction paper work nicely or disks (similar to golf ball markers sometimes used as primary math counters) also work well. Each team member will need his or her own field catalog sheet, grid record sheet, pencil, crayons, ruler and notebook paper. If students will be walking onto the canvas mat, they should remove shoes. Step 2: Teams will be given a class period to complete paperwork, discuss with teammates, draw analysis 1 conclusions and make a list of questions they may want to research. Step 3: At the end of the session, have each team place their artifacts in a Ziploc bag labeled with their grid designation. Conclusion: At the end of this lesson teams will have experienced the collection and investigation of artifacts similar to those found in the Mount Vernon midden. They will prepare for further investigation using the primary resources presented in Lesson 2. Materials List:  Midden Mock Dig and Artifacts – See “Making a Mock Midden”  Field Catalog Sheets  Grid Record Sheets
  22. 22.         Making a Mock Midden Step 1: Purchase a large canvas painter’s cloth. Step 2: Materials: sponges, acrylic paint (not tempera or watercolor), brushes, paint tray, water container, scissors and a picture of the midden (from PDF document on midden).
  23. 23.         Step 3: Spread the canvas over large table or on the floor. There will be minor bleed- through of the paint. It will wash off if done soon after painting OR cover the surface with a plastic drop cloth first. Step 4: Print a picture of the midden for reference. Orient your canvas to the picture and estimate location of the drain pipe on canvas.
  24. 24.         Step 5: In the bottom right corner of your canvas draw a large circle for your compass rose. Step 6: Cut one sponge the size of the northern bricks in the drain pipe and a second sponge for the southern bricks.
  25. 25.         Step 7: Draw the approximate location of the drain pipe on the canvas. Notice that part way down the bricks change direction and size. I chose not to have my drain pipe go to the edge of the canvas and instead made a “ditch” for people to stand in as seen on the real midden dig. Step 8: Prepare the paint. I put medium brown, dark brown, black, red, and orange on a paint tray. By touching the sponge into different colors you achieve a more three- dimensional effect.
  26. 26.         Step 9: Start printing your bricks, leaving spaces between for mortar joints and alternating full and half bricks (a half brick is made by only pressing half the sponge down) Step 10: After the brick areas have dried, paint brown areas for dirt with the chip brush and black areas for standing ditches. Paint the compass. Here is the completed canvas. Step 11: With a large black permanent marker draw grids on the canvas. This is easily done by marking the edge and middle of the canvas in 3 foot increments and drawing lines across. Label the top left corner of each grid box with a letter starting with A. These will be the assigned grids for student teams.
  27. 27.         Step 12: Here is a close up picture of Grid G with some artifacts in place. Here are the artifacts seen in grid G. They are 1) plate pieces, 2) old three-tine cooking fork with wooden handle, 3) flattened pewter pitcher, 4) pieces of broken pottery and brick, 5) a replica colonial buckle. Other objects that could be used include oriental plates, reproduction sewing pieces and reproduction coins, reproduction nails, reproduction pipes and reproduction silverware.
  28. 28.         Lesson 3: What’s Hidden in the Midden? – Part 3 Background: Teams will be given some time to research any questions they have following the mock dig. A lab period would be appropriate with time allotted to meet and complete presentation information with team members. Teams will make presentations on their findings. Step 1: Mount Vernon is a good resource to search for images of 18th-century household items. Any searches outside the Mount Vernon site should include the phrase “18th century.” A limited amount of time should be allotted for this as students typically have limited access to the full spectrum of the internet. Step 2: Team members write a descriptive narrative of their findings. One secretary for the group is sufficient and then the presentation can be divided amongst the team members. As mentioned, projecting the image of the team’s grid is a great resource for their presentations. Having the bagged artifacts on hand is also helpful. Step 3: Presentations are made and an EXIT Evaluation of the project by each students should be collected. Conclusion: If children are given the opportunity to participate in the entire “What’s Hidden in the Midden?” unit from Lesson 1 to Lesson 3: Part 3, they will evaluate and analyze history in a way that reading a book or watching a film won’t provide. These lessons allow students to tangibly understand archaeology in a historical and scientific manner.