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Ctn504 cours 5

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mécanique des sols: tassement et compressibilité

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Ctn504 cours 5

  1. 1. Cours CTN 504 Mécanique des sols Li Li, ing., Ph.D Professeur en géotechnique Département de génie de la construction Bureau: A-1484 Courriel: li.li@etsmtl.ca
  2. 2. Éteindre vos cellulaires, SVP!
  3. 3. Séances d'exercice dirigé: A-2332
  4. 4. Références supplémentaires: CGS 2006. Canadian foundation engineering manual. 4th edition, Bitech Publisher. McCarthy, D.F. 2002. Essentials of soil mechanics and foundation: Basi geotechnics. 6th edition, Prentice Hall.
  5. 5. Consolidation et tassement des sols (Séance 1er/2)
  6. 6. Construction Excavation Mouvement ou déplacement des sols
  7. 7. Définitions Le tassement d'une structure est le résultat de la déformation du sol de fondation. L'origine de cette déformation peut être un ou plusieurs suivant(s): – La déformation sous une charge totale croissante est appelée "mouvement" ou "déplacement". – Le changement de volume associé à la diminution du volume d'air, provenant d'un effet dynamique ou d'un chargement statique, est appelé "compactage". – Les changements de volume progressifs associés à une réduction de la teneur en eau du sol est appelé "consolidation". – La déformation sous contrainte effective constante est appelée "fluage".
  8. 8. Composantes du tassement Pour les sols argileux, le tassement total, st: où si = tassement immédiate (déformation élastique des fondations structurales, fûts de pieu par exemple); sc = tassement de consolidation (variation de teneur en eau); ss = tassement secondaire (fluage). Pour les sables, le tassement total, st: où le tassement immédiate, si, comprend le tassement élastique, se, et le tassement de consolidation (appelé plutôt "compression"), sc: scit SSSS  sit SSS  cei SSS 
  9. 9. Consolidation des argiles pression interstitielle excessive u
  10. 10. Œdomètre ou consolidomètre et essais de consolidation Œdomètre à anneau flottant Œdomètre à anneau fixe Échantillons non-remaniés: Dimension de l'échantillon D : H = 2.5 ~ 5
  11. 11. (a) (b) coefficient de compressibilité
  12. 12. (a) (b) Un matériau écrouissable
  13. 13. pression de préconsolidation
  14. 14. Contrainte de préconsolidation Particularité des sols: "mémoire" Courbe de recompression "Cassure" indiquant 'vc et une argile (absent pour les sables et silts)
  15. 15. État de consolidations Le rapport de surconsolidation OCR (over consolidation ratio): où 'p = contrainte de préconsolidation; 'vo = contrainte vertical effective due au poids des terres. Un sol sera ― Normalement consolidé si 'p = 'vo (OCR = 1); ― Surconsolidé si 'p > 'vo (OCR > 1); ― Sous-consolidé si 'p < 'vo (OCR < 1).
  16. 16. Sous-consolidation 'p < 'vo (OCR < 1) Remblais récents 'p = H - w(H+h) = subH - wh 'vo = H - wH = subH OCR = 'p/'p = 1 – (wh)/(subH) < 1 H h
  17. 17. Détermination de la contrainte de préconsolidation 'p Construction de Casagrande ou 1 2 3 4 5 'p Casagrande = 'vc B 'p probable = 'vc C 'vc D  'p  'vc E
  18. 18. L'histoire de l'argile selon Casagrande
  19. 19. Courbes typiques de consolidation des sols naturels
  20. 20. Des sols américain légèrement surconsolidés sable silt
  21. 21. Moraines glaciaires du Canada fortement surconsolidées • Pression de préconsolidation élevée • indice de vide faible
  22. 22. Influence de remaniement sur les courbes de consolidation
  23. 23. Comportement d'une argile sensible Intact 1. "Cassure" très raide; 2. Avant cassure; 3. Après cassure; 4. Indice de vide. Remanié
  24. 24. Consolidation d'une "argile" mexicain Intact 1. "Cassure" très raide; 2. Avant cassure; 3. Après cassure; 4. Indice de vide trop élevé (n > 90%). "argile sensible"
  25. 25. Consolidation d'une argile gonflant américaine Essais de gonflement à volume constant mouillage pression de gonflement
  26. 26. Consolidation d'une lœss (silts) Effet de l'eau
  27. 27. Consolidation d'un autre silt Caractéristiques • Manque de "cassure" • Difficile de déterminer 'p
  28. 28. Consolidation d'une tourbe Caractéristiques: • Indice de vide très élevé • Concave vers le haut • Difficile de déterminer 'p
  29. 29. Tassements H0
  30. 30. Coefficient de compressibilité, av Par définition, av > 0 (erreur de signe dans l'Exemple 8.3) e1 e2 '1 '2
  31. 31. Coefficient de changement de volume, mv dv v mv 1 01 e e v    0 0 1 e ee v    00 11 '/ ' e a e dde d d vv v v         01 e a m v v   
  32. 32. Module œdométrique, D ou Eœd mv 1 1 D vv v oed md d ED 1'   
  33. 33. Indice de compression, Cc C'est la pente de la courbe de compression vierge:
  34. 34. Indice de compression modifié, Cc Cc 1 1 2 12 ' ' log'log'log v v vv v v v v c d d C              v c d de C 'log  0 0 1 e ee v    01 e de d v   01 e C C c c  
  35. 35. Indice de recompression, Cr C'est la pente de la courbe de recompression (rebondissement): 1 Cr v r d de C 'log 
  36. 36. Indice de recompression modifié, Cr Cr 1 v v r d d C 'log    01 e C C r r  
  37. 37. Calcul des tassements de consolidation, sc
  38. 38. 'v0 = 'p 1. Construction 'v > 0, tassement. À considérer la courbe de compression vierge 2. Excavation 'v < 0, gonflement. À considérer la courbe de recompression. Cas d'une argile normalement consolidée 1 Cr 'v0 = 'p
  39. 39. Cas d'une argile surconsolidée Eqs. (8.16) et (8.17) Eqs. (8.18) et (8.19)
  40. 40. Méthode de Schmertmann (1955) Argile normalement consolidée Argile surconsolidée Déduction des courbes de consolidation sur le terrain
  41. 41. Estimation des indices de compression Équation de Terzaghi et Peck (1976): Invalide si sensibilité > 4 et wL >100% ou si teneur en matière organique élevée. En général: • Cr  (5 ~10%)Cc • 0.035  Cr  0.015

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