Maybe the motivators are actually just all related to sex?
e.g. job design studies – but these usually fail Many needs satisfied by goal setting, but also goals are part of the process of motivating
Organisations attempt to use motivation in order to manipulate what people want
Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007
To understand content and process theories of motivation
To know how organisations attempt to manage employee
To critique the theories, assumptions and practice of motivation
1. What is Motivation?
2. Theories of Motivation
3. Critiquing Motivation
What is motivation?
• What is my motivation?
I am motivated (internal drive)
What am I motivated to do?
What motivates you?
Security (physical, food, psychological)
Power (position, money, authority)
Social (peer-esteem, love, belonging)
Expression (creativity, achievement, identity)
It's not that I'm so
smart, it's just that I
stay with problems
Why does it matter?
If you’re not motivated you’re dead
Labour vs. Labour Power
The cost & inadequacy of supervision
I was saying
"I'm the greatest”
I believed it.
E.g. Vroom, Porter and Lawler, Adams
Expectancy Theory: M = E x I x V
But…overly rational? Too many variables?
Effort - Performance Link
Performance - Rewards Link
Rewards - Personal Goals Link
No matter how much effort
you put in, probably not possible
Your tutor does not look
like someone who has £1 million
There are a lot of wonderful things
you could do with £1 million
to memorise the text in 24 hours
Motivated to do what?
All cultures have….
– Hierarchies……but of what?
– Sex……..but with what?
– Groups….but of what?
– Pavlov and Skinner
– Reinforcement (punishment / reward)
– Peer pressure
The failure of organisational motivation?
– Most efforts = short-term improvements (Herzberg, 1968)
– Little evidence in most jobs
– Modern programs do more harm than good e.g. portfolio careers,
deregulation, flexiblity, temporary contracts
– Making out
– Stories and identities (Frese, 1982)
– Often have highly motivated lives
– Experience higher rates of mental illness
– Redefine and lower their goals
The social construction of motivation?
– Individualism vs. religion, class, community
– The American Dream
The media rhetoric
– X-Factor, Dragon’s Den, The Apprentice
– Winners and losers
The mundane reality
– Stuck in middle management
– Routine and boredom
– Short-term successes
When Motivation Succeeds….
– 24 hour jobs (WFH, Mobiles, Laptops)
– Devolving responsibility
– Enlarged jobs
When motivation does not equal achievement = inadequacy
Identity control tied up in high performance (e.g. TQM)
Highest motivated are the most stressed
Workaholics: 1/3 of high-performers ‘addicted’ to work
Hours, stress and insecurity are increasing
25% of men exhausted
20 of workers ‘extremely stressed’
– 4% days taken off sick
– Costs £13bn / years
– ¾ executives report stress affects their health, happiness & home
Presented as a problem to be ‘managed’
– Stress management techniques
– You need stress
The ‘social construction’ of stress?
– A 20th century phenomena
– Primary goal = to be happy
– No more hygiene needs?