Motivation &
Stress

Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007

07906133649
Learning objectives
•

To understand content and process theories of motivation

•

To know how organisations attempt to m...
The Agenda
1. What is Motivation?
2. Theories of Motivation
3. Critiquing Motivation

07906133649
What is Motivation?

07906133649
What is motivation?
• What is my motivation?
•

I am motivated (internal drive)

•

What am I motivated to do?

0790613364...
What motivates you?
•

Motivators
–
–
–
–
–

•

Security (physical, food, psychological)
Power (position, money, authority...
Theories of Motivation

07906133649
Needs / Content Theories
• Needs / Content Theories
– Maslow
– Hertzberg
– Alderfer

Maslow
Maslow

Herzberg

Motivators

...
Process Theories
•
•
•
•
•

Decision-making processes
E.g. Vroom, Porter and Lawler, Adams
Goal Setting
Expectancy Theory:...
Motivated to do what?
•

All cultures have….
– Hierarchies……but of what?
– Sex……..but with what?
– Groups….but of what?

•...
Managing Worker’s Motivations: HRM
•

Needs
–
–
–
–

•

Security
Social
Power
Expression

- pay, insurance, job security
-...
Critique of Motivation

07906133649
The failure of organisational motivation?
•

Failure?
– Most efforts = short-term improvements (Herzberg, 1968)
– Little e...
The social construction of motivation?
•

Social Influence
– Individualism vs. religion, class, community
– The American D...
When Motivation Succeeds….
•

Success?
– 24 hour jobs (WFH, Mobiles, Laptops)
– Devolving responsibility
– Enlarged jobs

...
Stress
•

Over-motivation?
–
–
–
–
–

•

Highest motivated are the most stressed
Workaholics: 1/3 of high-performers ‘addi...
Why ‘motivation’ and not ‘persuasion’?
Questions?
Motivation
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Motivation

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  • “motivation” – to move
  • Maybe the motivators are actually just all related to sex?
  • e.g. job design studies – but these usually fail
    Many needs satisfied by goal setting, but also goals are part of the process of motivating
  • Organisations attempt to use motivation in order to manipulate what people want
  • Motivation

    1. 1. Motivation & Stress Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007 07906133649
    2. 2. Learning objectives • To understand content and process theories of motivation • To know how organisations attempt to manage employee motivation • To critique the theories, assumptions and practice of motivation literature 07906133649
    3. 3. The Agenda 1. What is Motivation? 2. Theories of Motivation 3. Critiquing Motivation 07906133649
    4. 4. What is Motivation? 07906133649
    5. 5. What is motivation? • What is my motivation? • I am motivated (internal drive) • What am I motivated to do? 07906133649
    6. 6. What motivates you? • Motivators – – – – – • Security (physical, food, psychological) Power (position, money, authority) Sex Social (peer-esteem, love, belonging) Expression (creativity, achievement, identity) It's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer. Why does it matter? – – – – If you’re not motivated you’re dead Controlling people Labour vs. Labour Power The cost & inadequacy of supervision I was saying "I'm the greatest” long before I believed it.
    7. 7. Theories of Motivation 07906133649
    8. 8. Needs / Content Theories • Needs / Content Theories – Maslow – Hertzberg – Alderfer Maslow Maslow Herzberg Motivators Hygiene Factors 07906133649
    9. 9. Process Theories • • • • • Decision-making processes E.g. Vroom, Porter and Lawler, Adams Goal Setting Expectancy Theory: M = E x I x V But…overly rational? Too many variables? Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Effort - Performance Link Performance - Rewards Link Rewards - Personal Goals Link No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million to memorise the text in 24 hours E=0 I=0 07906133649 V=1
    10. 10. Motivated to do what? • All cultures have…. – Hierarchies……but of what? – Sex……..but with what? – Groups….but of what? • Conditioning – Pavlov and Skinner – Reinforcement (punishment / reward) – Peer pressure 07906133649
    11. 11. Managing Worker’s Motivations: HRM • Needs – – – – • Security Social Power Expression - pay, insurance, job security - team work, feedback, socialising, respect - authority, autonomy, decision-making, status - achievement, challenge, innovation Process: goals – Goal Setting / Management by Objectives – Specific, measurable, attainable goals – Participation 07906133649
    12. 12. Critique of Motivation 07906133649
    13. 13. The failure of organisational motivation? • Failure? – Most efforts = short-term improvements (Herzberg, 1968) – Little evidence in most jobs – Modern programs do more harm than good e.g. portfolio careers, deregulation, flexiblity, temporary contracts • Resistance motivators – Making out – Stories and identities (Frese, 1982) – Games • Demotivated workers – Often have highly motivated lives – Experience higher rates of mental illness – Redefine and lower their goals 07906133649
    14. 14. The social construction of motivation? • Social Influence – Individualism vs. religion, class, community – The American Dream • The media rhetoric – X-Factor, Dragon’s Den, The Apprentice – Winners and losers • The mundane reality – Stuck in middle management – Routine and boredom – Short-term successes 07906133649
    15. 15. When Motivation Succeeds…. • Success? – 24 hour jobs (WFH, Mobiles, Laptops) – Devolving responsibility – Enlarged jobs • When motivation does not equal achievement = inadequacy • Identity control tied up in high performance (e.g. TQM) 07906133649
    16. 16. Stress • Over-motivation? – – – – – • Highest motivated are the most stressed Workaholics: 1/3 of high-performers ‘addicted’ to work Hours, stress and insecurity are increasing 25% of men exhausted 20 of workers ‘extremely stressed’ Effects – 4% days taken off sick – Costs £13bn / years – ¾ executives report stress affects their health, happiness & home • Presented as a problem to be ‘managed’ – Stress management techniques – Counselling – You need stress • The ‘social construction’ of stress? – A 20th century phenomena – Primary goal = to be happy – No more hygiene needs? 07906133649
    17. 17. Why ‘motivation’ and not ‘persuasion’?
    18. 18. Questions?

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