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# Section 1 structure

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introduction to structure geology and contour maps

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### Section 1 structure

1. 1. Section 1 Folds on geologic map Edited by: Mostafa Abdel Azim Masoud Demonstrator – Geology department- Faculty of Science
2. 2. Synthesis of fold
3. 3. Types of folds according to attitude of axial plane
4. 4. Criteria of folds
5. 5. Criteria of folds
6. 6. Difference between syncline and anticline folds on map 1) Direction of strata dip In anticlines the direction of strata around the axis is away of the core and in syncline the direction is toward the core. 2) The age of strata In anticlines the oldest strata are in the core and the youngest and vice versa in synclines. 3)Direction of plunge In plunging anticline folds, the plunge is in the same direction of closure, and in synclines, the plunge in opposite direction of closure.
7. 7. How to describe the folds on map ? 1-Type of strata consisting the fold. 2-Direction of fold (fold axis). 3-Direction of plunge (in case of plunging fold). 4-Type of fold: *Symmetrical or non symmetrical. *Plunging or non-plunging. *Syncline , anticline, monocline.
8. 8. How do you know the direction of river on map • 1) V-shape • 2) Alluvial deposits • 3) Values of contour lines
9. 9. Report of map To write a report for a geologic map, you should keep in mind three aspects which are : 1) Geomorphology: such as volcanic activity, erosion, transgression, regression, general slope ………..etc. 2) Structure geology : such as folds, faults, domes, basins, unconformities…..etc. 3) Topography: mountains, hills, plateau……etc. 4) History of map.
10. 10. Double plunging folds
11. 11. Double plunging anticline
12. 12. Map 2
13. 13. faults