Chapter 5 psych 1 online stud 10.11


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Chapter 5 psych 1 online stud 10.11

  1. 1. Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
  2. 2. What Is Consciousness? Awareness? Aware of what? Why is it like a stream? Changes from normal consciousness are known as altered states of consciousness.
  3. 3. The Rhythms of Life Chronobiology – the study of biological rhythms Circadian rhythms are biological changes that occur on a daily schedule, including the sleep- wake cycle and the body temperature cycle.
  4. 4. Rhythm of Body TemperatureCircadian rhythms are controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which is located in the hypothalamus and acts as an internal clock. Levels of a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, melatonin, are affected by light and darkness; thus melatonin may play a role in controlling biological rhythms.
  5. 5. The Rhythms of Life By isolating volunteers in an environment without time cues, researchers have found the free-running sleep- wake cycle extends to about 25 hours. To correspond to the 24-hour day, the cycle must be reset every day by external cues, especially sunlight. Jet travel and shift work can disrupt the sleep-wake cycle. The symptoms of Jet leg result from the difference between our internal clock and the time in our environment. It is easier to adapt to phase delays (east-west travel) than to phase advances (west-east travel). Rotating shifts can be improved by using a clockwise rotation (days to evenings to nights), which involves a series of phase delays.
  6. 6. The Study of Sleep A sleep cycle lasts approximately 90 minutes and starts with non-REM (NREM) sleep. We descend through NREM Stages I to 4 and then ascend through them to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
  7. 7. The Study of Sleep The average adult repeats this cycle about four to six times each night. Sleep decreases from about 16 hours at birth to about 7 to 8 hours in young adulthood, with little change thereafter.
  8. 8. The Study of Sleep Sleep efficiency (time in bed actually asleep) is lower among elderly people, who experience less slow-wave sleep and spend increased time in the lighter stages of sleep. Naps
  9. 9. The Study of Sleep Infants spend about 50% of their sleep in REM, perhaps to provide stimulation needed for brain development. Sleep may have evolved to fill time, but the amount of sleep in each species depends on vulnerability to predators and the need to find food.
  10. 10. The Study of Sleep Most cases of insomnia are of short duration. Sleeping pills have limited usefulness and should be used with care. The stimulus control method is an effective treatment for sleep onset insomnia.
  11. 11. Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Sleep apnea
  12. 12. Parasomnias Enuresis (bedwetting) Sleepwalking Sleep terrors REM sleep behavior disorder Nightmares are bad dreams SIDS
  13. 13. Hypnosis
  14. 14. Hypnosis • Hypnotically refreshed memories? • Positive and negative hallucinations? • Age regression and past-life regression
  15. 15. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Psychoactive substances
  16. 16. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Substance abuse? Substance dependence?
  17. 17. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Tolerance?
  18. 18. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Withdrawal •Symptoms?
  19. 19. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Depressants • Slow functioning of CNS • Alcohol, barbiturates, and the benzodiazepines.
  20. 20. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Alcohol • Most widely used psychoactive substance in United States and throughout world • Associated with range of medical and mental health problems
  21. 21. Fun facts about alcohol! • Energy, but no nutrients • Slows rate at which fat burns • Likely to deposit unburned fat on hips, thighs, and stomach
  22. 22. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Alcohol • Metabolism rate • BAC • Legal definition of intoxication • CNS inhibitor
  23. 23. BAC
  24. 24. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Long-term consequences Delirium tremens (DTs) Korsakoff’s syndrome
  25. 25. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Barbiturates Depress CNS functioning Effects range from mild sedation to coma High doses can lead to serious withdrawal symptoms, including life- threatening convulsions “Downers”
  26. 26. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Benzodiazepines • Used in treatment of sleep-related difficulties, anxiety and agitation, and muscle relaxation
  27. 27. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Stimulants Speed up CNS activity Mimic body’s reaction to stress (Inc bp and respiration) Stimulate release of neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine Amphetamines; “Uppers” or “speed” Suppress appetite
  28. 28. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Amphetamines: Low to moderate doses • Increase alertness • Elevate mood • Reduce appetite and need for sleep • Induce euphoria Amphetamines: Larger doses • Cause irritability and anxiety • Induce serious reaction indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia
  29. 29. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Cocaine Extracted from leaves of coca plant (Peru, Bolivia, Middle East Most potent stimulant of natural origin? Short and intense high makes it especially addictive
  30. 30. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Methamphetamine Meth, crystal, speed, ice Stimulant most dangerous? Snorted, smoked, or injected
  31. 31. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Ecstasy • Methylenedioxymetham phetamine (MDMA) • Synthetic substance can be manufactured from readily available materials • Also known as XTC, Adam, MDM, hug, beans, and love drug High doses • Can interfere with body’s ability to regulate temperature
  32. 32. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Caffeine • most widely-used stimulant • Found in chocolate (usually very little), beverages, some nonprescription drugs Nicotine • Stimulant • Potent; activates brain, heart, and nervous system
  33. 33. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Opiates or opioids Naturally occurring or synthetic drugs with properties similar to opium Narcotic analgesics or narcotics Morphine, codeine, and heroin Produce analgesia and sleepiness Highly addictive and potentially dangerous
  34. 34. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Hallucinogens • Often natural compounds; some produced in lab • Changes perception, thought, emotions, self- awareness • time and space distortions, and symptoms similar to those found in severe psychological disorders (Next)
  35. 35. Altering Consciousness with Drugs Marijuana effects •Increase heart rate; bloodshot eyes •Attention, memory, and coordination