Chapter 15 psy 1 stud 12.11


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Chapter 15 psy 1 stud 12.11

  1. 1. Chapter 15 6th EditionSocial Psychology: The Individual in Society 15-1
  2. 2. Social Psychology and Culture• Social psychology examines the causes, types, and consequences of human interaction.• Human interactions do not occur in isolation; they occur in a specific cultural context.• Researchers are sometimes guilty of ethnocentrism;they disregard cultural differences and see other cultures as an extension of their own ―superior‖ culture. 15-2
  3. 3. Social Psychology and Culture• Because culture can influence the type of research problem we choose to investigate, the nature of our research hypothesis, and the selection of the variables we choose to manipulate and record, researchers must guard against ethnocentrism. 15-3
  4. 4. Social Psychology and Culture• Individualism is defined as placing one’s own goals above those of the group.• Collectivism is defined as placing group goals above individual goals.• The degree of individualism or collectivism in a culture can influence many aspects of behavior, such as interpersonal relations, self-concept, parenting practices, self- esteem, and emotional expression. 15-4
  5. 5. Social Cognition• Impression formation is the process of developing an opinion about another person. Requires an actor and a perceiver• In addition to forming impressions of others, we also make judgments, called attributions,about the reasons for or causes of this person’s behavior. 15-5
  6. 6. Social Cognition• A stereotype (+ OR – ) is a set of beliefs about members of a particular group.They reduce the amount of information that must be processed• In-group stereotypes refer to the stereotypes that we have about people who are in the same group(s) we belong to; they typically are positive stereotypes.• Out-group stereotypes tend to be negative and describe others in such terms as ―them‖ or ―those people.‖• They are persistent b/c: – 1) If we believe that a group of people possesses certain characteristics, we may selectively note behaviors that are consistent with those characteristics and fail to notice behaviors that are inconsistent. – 2) When your behaviors influence others to respond the way you expect, a self-fulfilling prophecy is at work. 15-6
  7. 7. Social Cognition – Examples• The ―beautiful is good‖ stereotype assumes that attractive people have positive characteristics—that they are witty and intelligent and have pleasing personalities.• Therefore, attractive people can be expected to make better impressions. 15-7
  8. 8. Social Cognition• Four features of the actor have been shown to influence impression formation.• Those features are: 1) physical appearance, 2) style and content of speech, 3) nonverbal mannerisms and nonverbal communication, and 4) the perceiver’s prior information about the actor. 15-8
  9. 9. Social Cognition• With regard to impression formation, an actor’s style of speech is important.• Among the aspects of speech that are influential are speed, volume, and inflections (variations).• The content of speech is also important. 15-9
  10. 10. Social Cognition• More self-disclosure = more positive the impression others form.• However, too much self-disclosure early in a relationship can create a negative impression. 15-10
  11. 11. Social Cognition• Attribution is the process by which we decide why certain events occurred or why a particular person acted in a certain manner.• With internal attributions, behavior is seen as being caused by factors that reside within a person.• With external attributions, the causes of behavior are viewed as residing outside an individual. 15-11
  12. 12. How We View Others and Their Behavior• Our confidence in making attributions regarding internal or external causes is greatest when the behaviors we observe are consistent.• Consensus refers to the reactions of other people to the external object or behavior in question.• When consensus is high and everyone views the behavior or object in the same manner, we tend to make external attributions; when it is low and no one agrees about the behavior or object in question, we tend to make internal attributions. 15-12
  13. 13. Social Cognition• The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to attribute behaviors to internal causes.• Perceivers are more likely to make internal attributions, while actors are more likely to make external attributions. 15-13
  14. 14. Social Cognition• The self-serving bias is the tendency to make internal attributions when we are successful and external attributions when we fail.• The just world belief is the belief that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people. 15-14
  15. 15. Attitudes• Attitudes are evaluative judgments about objects, people, and thoughts that include affective, knowledge, and behavioral components.• They protect us from threats to the self or ego.• Bring order and meaning to the world.• Can develop through operant or classical conditioning.• Can be measured with a (1 – 5) Likert Scale 15-15
  16. 16. Interpersonal Relations• Attraction• Friendship 15-16
  17. 17. Interpersonal Relations• Passionate love is a transitory form of love characterized by strong emotional reactions, sexual desires, and fantasies.• Companionate love is characterized by a long-term relationship and commitment.• Sex roles can influence the love relationship. 15-17
  18. 18. Interpersonal Relations• Interdependence theory takes into account the costs and rewards in a relationship, as well as the available alternatives.• Each person develops a comparison level (CL); this CL is the general outcome you expect from a relationship.• Your CL is based on your past experiences and the experiences of others in similar situations. 15-18
  19. 19. Interpersonal Relations• You are satisfied with a relationship when the outcomes are equal to or above your CL.• You become dissatisfied when the outcomes fall below your CL.• People leave a relationship when the outcomes fall below their CLs for other relationships. 15-19
  20. 20. Interpersonal Relations• Prosocial behavior is behavior that benefits others.• Altruism refers to helping behavior performed with no anticipation of reward. (But is it?)• Higher levels of prosocial behavior are positively correlated with empathy, social skills, and extraversion. 15-20
  21. 21. Interpersonal Relations• Bystander effect: The tendency for a group of bystanders to be less likely than an individual to provide assistance to a person in trouble. 15-21
  22. 22. Interpersonal Relations• Among the factors that determine the bystander effect are degree of danger, embarrassment, not knowing how to help, and diffusion of responsibility. 15-22
  23. 23. Interpersonal Relations• Date rape appears to result from misperceptions, especially on the part of men, about the acceptability of sexual relations in certain situations.• Heavy alcohol consumption is another factor that often leads to date rape on college campuses. 15-23
  24. 24. Social Influences on Behavior• Persuasion is the use of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and behaviors.• The expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness of the source of a message are important determinants of persuasion. 15-24
  25. 25. Social Influences on Behavior• The sleeper effect occurs when the message and its source become detached.• Messages from sources low in expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness may increase in effectiveness due to the sleeper effect. 15-25
  26. 26. Social Influences on Behavior• Obedience is the initiating or changing of behavior in response to a direct command of an authority.• In cases in which obedience will result in harm to another person, obedience increases with proximity to the source of the commands but decreases with proximity to the victim.• If the source of the commands takes responsibility for any harm resulting from obedience to those commands, the likelihood of obedience is high. 15-26
  27. 27. Social Influences on Behavior• Conformity results from indirect social pressure on an individual to change his or her behaviors and thoughts.• The nature of the authority behind pressures for conformity is not as obvious as it is in commands for obedience. 15-27
  28. 28. Social Influences on Behavior• Selecting the matching line seems simple!• However, 30% of Asch’s participants chose incorrectly to conform with the group. 15-28
  29. 29. Social Influences on Behavior• Compliance refers to behavior that is initiated or changed as a result of a request.• The foot-in-the-dooreffect is a phenomenon in which a person who has agreed to a small request is more likely to comply with a subsequent larger request. 15-29
  30. 30. Social Influences on Behavior• In the door-in-the-face technique, people are first presented with an extremely large request, which they likely will refuse, and then they are presented with a more reasonable request that they are more likely to accept.• The compliance technique known as reciprocity involves doing something for someone else to make that person feel obligated to do something in return. 15-30
  31. 31. The Individual as Part of a Social Group• The presence of other people increases arousal, which may result in enhanced ability to perform a desired response.• This effect is known as social facilitation. 15-31
  32. 32. The Individual as Part of a Social Group• Social loafing is the tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task if individual contributions are not evaluated.• Social loafing can be reduced by making the task more involving, challenging, appealing, or competitive. 15-32
  33. 33. The Individual as Part of a Social Group• Groupthink is the tendency to make decisions intended primarily to promote the harmony of the group.• Groupthink occurs most often in very cohesive groups that are insulated from other opinions and groups, feel that they are invulnerable, have a respected and directive leader, and are placed under time constraints to reach a decision concerning a threat to the group.• In these circumstances, groups tend to make premature and poorly considered decisions. 15-33
  34. 34. The Individual as Part of a Social Group• Steps to help avoid being snared into the groupthink trap: – The leader should strive to remain impartial and nondirective. – Opinions should be gathered from people outside the group. – Use secret ballots. 15-34
  35. 35. The Individual as Part of a Social Group• Prejudice is judging a person on the basis of stereotypes about the group to which the person belongs.• Prejudice may be reduced through contact among members of different groups.• Discrimination consists of behaviors directed at members of a particular group that affect them adversely. 15-35
  36. 36. The Individual as Part of a Social Group• Prejudice frequently justifies social standing or maintains self-esteem.• Because it makes us feel superior, prejudice can also satisfy our emotional need for status.• Gordon Allport proposed that ―equal status contact between majority and minority groups in the pursuit of common goals‖ would reduce prejudice. 15-36