Lifespan Chapter 14 Online Stud

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Lifespan Chapter 14 Online Stud

  1. 1. Chapter 14Social & Personality Development in Middle Adulthood 1
  2. 2. I. Personality Development in Middle Age• There are 3 major controversies involving personality development in middle age  Midlife crisis  Normative-crisis versus life events  Stability versus change in personality 16-2
  3. 3. A. Two Perspectives on Adult Personality Development1. Normative-crisis models  Traditional view – fixed stages  Specific crises lead to growth; related to age  Erickson – contributions to family, community, work, and society; leaving a legacy  Critics suggest outdated (gender roles were more rigid). Look for biases in research! 16-3
  4. 4. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of AdulthoodStagnation: focus on the triviality of life; peoplefeel they have made only a limited contribution tothe world 16-4
  5. 5. Levinson’s Seasons of Life• Results of extensive interviews with middle-aged men• 20s -- novice phase of experimentation and testing• 28 to 33 years -- transition and adoption of goals• 30s -- BOOM -- becoming one’s own man phase 16-5
  6. 6. Levinson’s Seasons of Life• Early 40’s are marked by transition and crisis May 16, 2005:• Midlife crisis. 16-6
  7. 7. Levinson 16-7
  8. 8. Two Perspectives on Adult Personality Development, continued2. Life events models (Helson)• Events in life determine personality development (not age).  Childbirth, divorce 16-8
  9. 9. “How old would you be if you didn’t know how old you was?” 16-9
  10. 10. The “Big Five”• The five major clusters of relatively stable personality characteristics:  Neuroticism  Extraversion  Openness  Agreeableness  Conscientiousness 16-10
  11. 11. II. Relationships: Marriage and Divorce in Middle Age• Societal norms change over time [how?] 16-11
  12. 12. The Phases of Marital Satisfaction 16-12
  13. 13. Remarriage• 75% of white women remarry less than half of black women• Harder for a middle-aged woman to remarry  90% of women under 25.  Less than one-third over the age of 40.  The marriage gradient 16-13
  14. 14. Second marriages are different.• Roles are more flexible.• Less romantic, more cautious.• The divorce rate is higher for second marriages.  More stress.• But, many remarried people report satisfaction rates as high as those is successful first marriages. 16-14
  15. 15. B. Family Evolution• 1. Empty Nest Syndrome• 2. Boomerang Children• 3. Sandwich Generation 16-15
  16. 16. C. Becoming a Grandparent• Grandparents tend to fall into 3 categories:  Involved  Companionate  Remote• Changing roles  Legal visitation rights  Parental roles 16-16
  17. 17. D. Spousal Abuse The 1985 National Family Violence Survey in the U.S.; 1987 study of Alberta, Canada: 11.3 percent of U.S. women; 11.2 percent of Canadian women WHO 2002: 12-month rates of 1.3 percent (overall prevalence rate of 22.1%), Statistics Canada (Trainor and Mihorean 2001) reported that both the 1993 Violence Against Women Survey and the 1999 General Social Survey found twelve-month wife abuse rates of 3 percent. Worse in cultures where women are seen as inferior 16-17
  18. 18. Lenore Walker (The Battered Woman, 1980)Three stages:• Tension-building stage• Acute battering incident• Honeymoon Phase (Loving contrition) [Next] 16-18
  19. 19. The Cultural Roots of ViolenceText: Original English law allowed husbands to beat their wives by the “rule of thumb.” MYTH 16-19
  20. 20. III. Work and Leisure in Middle-age• Often greatest productivity, success, and earning power.• Tend to stay unemployed longer  Associated with: anx, dep’n, irritability• The older you are, the more job satisfaction you are likely to experience 16-20

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