Introduction to chemistry

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Introduction to chemistry

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Definitions and History
  2. 2. DEFINITION OF CHEMISTRY <ul><li>It is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more on the composition, behavior, structure and properties of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of the term Chemistry came from the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab Latinized word “Keme” meaning “ value ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptian word “Khemia” meaning “ transmutation of earth” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek word “Khymeia” meaning “Art of alloying metal” and “Khumeia” meaning “casting together” or “putting together” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Chemistry is a Natural Science that falls under Physical Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Its known branches are: </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Chemistry </li></ul>
  4. 4. HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY <ul><li>By 1000BC ancient civilizations where applying different branches of chemistry. Examples are purifying and extracting metals, dying cloth materials, fermentation of wine, cosmetics, painting, medicines, embalming, food making, and making alloys. </li></ul>
  5. 5. HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY <ul><li>The first chemical reaction that was used in a controlled manner was “FIRE” </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks, Indian, and Egyptians where the ones to first to utilize chemistry without realizing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Purification of metals was first recognized as early as 2600 BC by the Egyptians when they purify gold. </li></ul>
  6. 6. HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY <ul><li>The discovery of alloys marked the start of the Bronze age (3300 BC). This started in Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Near East) </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement in alchemy and metallurgy were made in Ancient India </li></ul>
  7. 7. ALCHEMY TO CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Alchemy is a practice associated with mysticism and protoscience. </li></ul><ul><li>People were looking for methods for finding cheaper ways of making gold and finding miraculous cure for diseases during ancient European times. </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemists also known as gold cooks believed to have powers that science can’t explain. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ALCHEMY TO CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Alchemist were believe to have the ability to: </li></ul><ul><li>Turn base metals to gold </li></ul><ul><li>Find a cure for the Bubonic Plague </li></ul><ul><li>Produce medicine that will improve life </li></ul><ul><li>Create the Elixir of Life known as the Panacea </li></ul>
  9. 9. ALCHEMY TO CHEMISTRY <ul><li>But because alchemy has no system for documenting its progress and basically no basis for its phenomena making the process vague, it was proven fraudulent. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims, lead by Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber) translated Greek and Egyptian works into Arabic and made systematic and experimental approach to alchemy. He was consider by many as father of Chemistry. </li></ul>

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