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Final report

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Final report

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction This chapter will outline the introductory part and the proposed problem to be researched on. It will present the background of the study area and then state the problem to be researched on. The purpose of the study and its objectives, both general and specific, the research questions whose answers will provide solutions to the problem stated and the importance of the study to the body of knowledge will be presented. In the last part of the chapter, the boundaries of the study or the delimitation to show the scope of the study are outlined. The limitations to the study and the definition of key terms are also outlined in this chapter. 1.2 Background of the Study According to the Education Reforms of 1977, special education refers to education specially designed and suited to the needs of the children with impairments or persons with physical or mental disabilities. To adequately meet the needs of persons with disabilities, there is need to identify the etiology of the disability and later determine their individual needs. This would enable the awareness or attention to the physical, social, mental and emotional development of the affected person. The field of special education encompasses the following handicaps: the mentally handicapped, the blind, the deaf, the dumb, the deaf and dumb, partially sighted, the physically handicapped and those with speech defects (MoE, 1977). According to the Zambia Ministry of Finance (2000) census report, there are about 256,000 disabled people in Zambia. Not until 1971, special education was not organized and was only provided by voluntary agencies, mainly mission agencies which used untrained personnel. The Ministry of Education introduced the Lusaka College for Teachers for the Handicapped which offered training to in service teachers who showed interest in teaching the handicapped to teach the blind, the deaf and physically handicapped. This was done to facilitate the sufficient provision of teachers to the special education sector though the institution could only accommodate a small number of learners, hence limiting the graduate output of the institution.
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e 1.3 Statement of the Problem The Ministry of Education has introduced several policies that are aimed at improving the learning standards of learners with special educational needs. Are these policies being effectively implemented in the schools? 1.4 Purpose of Study This study was meant to investigate the implementation of educational policies concerning special education in Zambia with special reference to Munali Secondary and Lusaka Girls Secondary Special Units. 1.5 Objectives of the Study The following were the specific objectives of this study: a. To find out if the educational policies concerning special education are being implemented in the schools. b. To find out if teachers are adequately trained in Special education to teach learners with special educational needs at Munali Secondary school and Lusaka Girls Special Units. c. To establish the challenges faced by teachers and learners in the teaching and learning process. 1.6 Research Questions In trying to achieve the above stated objectives, this study asked the following research questions: a) Are the educational policies concerning special education being implemented in schools? b) Are teachers teaching learners with special educational needs at Munali Secondary school and Lusaka Girls Special Unit adequately trained in special education? c) What are the challenges faced by teachers and learners in the teaching and learning process?
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e 1.7 Significance of the Study This study hopes to provide valuable data on the current policy and practice in the field of Special Education and training of special education teachers. The study hopes to highlight the challenges which teachers and learners face in the teaching/learning process. The findings from this study will help the government and other stakeholders formulate appropriate policies for educating learners with special educational needs. This study is of great importance to the field of special education as it seeks to provide solutions to the various problems faced by learners with special educational needs in Zambian schools. It might help in the implementation of the existing policies and in the provision of suitable learning and teaching environments to the teachers and learners with special educational needs. 1.8 Delimitation This study was conducted in mainstream schools with a special unit. It was specifically conducted in mainstream schools to determine the implementation and effectiveness of the educational policies in inclusive schools. However, the findings of this research may not be generalized or applied to the whole country. 1.9 Limitations of the Study This study was affected by several factors. Because this study was conducted at 2 (Two) schools, Munali Secondary and Lusaka Girls Secondary Special Units, the findings of this study may not be fully generalized to represent all the schools in the country. 1.10 Definition of Key Terms In this study the following terms were used as follows:  Deaf Children: children who may be hearing impaired but predominantly manifest the deaf culture through their use of Sign Language.  Braille print: a format of writing used by the blind.  Signed Exact English: An artificial signing system designed by teachers which follows the English syntax.  Unit: a section or department in a mainstream school which caters for the affairs of the Deaf.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e  Sign language: the natural language predominantly used by the Deaf which has its own distinct vocabulary and grammar predominantly used by the Deaf.  Albinos: persons with a genetic condition that causes abnormal coloration of a person’s skin, hair, and eyes because of lack of pigment. These individuals’ vision is severely affected because of the eyes’ inability to adjust to differences in light and acuity problems associated with the condition. Conclusion This chapter has outlined the milestones the government has undergone in the field of special education from the Educational Reforms of 1977 till date. It has also outlined in the background the shortage of teaching staff in the country that has been experienced in the past years since independence and the introduction of a degree program in special education to train teachers in special education at degree level in order to improve the provision of special education services in Zambia. The chapter has also outlined the objectives and the research questions of the study that facilitated the collection of data. It has also outlined the purpose of the study which is to find out if the Zambian education system is meeting the learning needs of learners with special educational needs. The chapter further stated that the significance of the current study is to help the government and other stake holders in the formulation of appropriate policies in order to improve the standards of special education in Zambia. Finally the chapter concludes by stating the limitations of the study. These include the limited study sites and choice of respondents.
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter comprises a review of literature on the issues surrounding Special education in Zambia. It includes the major proposals, recommendations and policies made by the Zambian government with regard to special education. It comprises the recommendations and policies made in various documents and conferences and their implementations. It includes international and local literature as the plight of special education is of global interest, hence there are various literatures written by many organization and scholars to solicit the improvement of special educational services in schools worldwide. 2.2 Educational Policies The ‘Educational Reforms’ of 1977 stated that the field of special education does not only need the professional services of the teacher but essentially needs the services of other professionals from different fields such as medicine, psychology and sociology in order to successfully deliver a meaningful education to the handicapped learners. Handicapped persons like all other ‘normal’ persons, are entitled a quality education and it must be provided to them in both basic and further or tertiary levels with ‘positive discrimination’ in provision of educational facilities and amenities by virtue of them being a special case. Among the important considerations suggested by the reforms were that handicapped children were to attend ordinary schools and colleges or universities for socialisation purposes though this was to depend on the degree of the disability; the educational conditions were to be improved The Ministry of Education document, Focus on Learning of 1992 emphasized on building infrastructure that would suit the needs of the physically handicapped. The ministry further formulated three educational policies in the document Education Our Future of 1996 (MoE, 1996). The policies included the following: 1) The Ministry of Education will ensure equality of educational opportunity for children with special education needs.
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e 2) The Ministry is committed to providing education of particularly good quality to learners with special educational needs. 3) The Ministry will improve and strengthen the supervision and management of special education across the country. These policies were lined up to be implemented through a number of strategies some of which were to include the Ministry of Health in the identification, assessment and placement of learners with special educational needs. Ministry intended to work with the private and religious sectors to place learners with special educational needs into the mainstream schools and those with severe conditions in special schools. The Ministry also intended to provide these learners with full financial support through bursaries at tertiary level (MoE, 1996). The Fifth National Development Plan (2006) reported that by the year 2002, the total number of Children with Special Education Needs (CSEN) in basic education was just over 23,000, representing only 1.1% of the total school population. The number had risen by 2004 to over 73,000 learners, representing 2.9% of all the learners. The rate of increase was also similar in the high school sub-sector over the same period. Emphasis was further made on the training of more teachers at ZAMISE, increasing and advancing the identification and assessment of special educational needs and the provision of grants and/or bursaries to enable the enrollment of more children with special needs in local communities. The Government of the Republic of Zambia through the Ministry of Education recognizes the rights of persons with disabilities, to have access to good and quality education. Through the 1996 policy document, the Ministry of Education stresses the need to ensure that there is equality of educational opportunities for children with special educational needs. The policy further emphasizes the need to provide education of particularly good quality to learners with special educational needs (Ministry of Education, 1996).The ministry speaks of the principle of integrating the special needs children to the greatest extent possible in the mainstream schools. Yet they have made no special provisions to cater for the special communication needs of the deaf which is Sign language in mainstream classes. At Munali Secondary School for instance, deaf children were put in mainstream classes without teachers handling such mainstreamed classes being trained in Sign language. The deaf children were hence disadvantaged as a result the practice was discontinued in 2007.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e 2.3 Teacher Training In Special Education The training of teachers in special education in Zambia is being provided by several learning institutions primarily the Zambia Institute of Special Education (ZAMISE) and the University of Zambia (UNZA). ZAMISE started its operation in 1971, as Lusaka College for Teachers of the Handicapped. The College offered courses in Visual Impairment, Hearing and Physical Impairment. In 1981, the College extended its training programme to include the training of teachers of the mentally retarded. The institution started with a vision to be a national research and training centre in Special Needs Education and produce competent and qualified Special Education teachers and other personnel who will be able to meet the various Special Education Needs at different levels in the society of Early Childhood Care Education and Development, Basic and High Schools. In 1993, Diploma in Special Education was introduced and the program was affiliated to the University of Zambia. ZAMISE trains teachers in teaching of the Visually Impaired, the Hearing Impaired, the teaching of children with learning difficulties and Early Childhood Education for children with special educational needs. ZAMISE offers a two year full time diploma course in Special Education. The program equips students with in-depth knowledge and understanding of the needs, strengths and limitations of the children with Special Needs (http://www.educationinzambia.com/zamise). ZAMISE also offers the Diploma through distance learning for the duration of three (3) years. The courses covered during the program are the same as for full time. The course consists of three contact sessions in a year of two (2) weeks per session (ibid). At the University of Zambia, the Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education (EPSSE) was established in 1989. It was initially part of the Department of Education, out of which came the Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies (EAPS), Language and Social Sciences Education (LSSE), Mathematics and Sciences Education (MSE) and In-Service Education and Advisory Services (ISEAS), which has been divided into Department of Primary Education and Advisory Unit for Colleges of Education (AUCE). In 1995, the Department introduced an interim Special Education programme for Bachelor of Arts with Education (BA Ed) Students, which was later transformed into the Bachelor of
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e Education in Special Education (B Ed; Sp. Ed) in 1996.The introduction of the Bachelor of Special Education meant an increase in both number of courses offered by the Department and also of staff. Currently, the Department has staff establishment of 23 Lecturers (http://www.unza.zm/education/epsse). The department also houses Special Education Assessment Centre and Demonstration Class. The Assessment Centre was initiated in collaboration with the Niilo Maki Institute and was opened in January, 1996. The Department has also established a number of links with other learning institutions locally and internationally, notable among them is the UNZA-OULU LINK, for Staff and Students’ Exchange. In addition, the Department offers Post-Graduate Programmes in conjunction with the Directorate of Research and Graduate Studies (DRGS). The B. Ed Special Education degree programme was started in the 1996/97 academic year with an intake of 6 first-year pre-service and 20 third year in service candidates. The programme has since produced just over a hundred and eighty graduates, the majority of whom are employed by the Ministry of Education at various levels. Over the seven - year period, the programme has been on offer, the programme has maintained its effectiveness in producing graduates with the relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to meet the special educational needs in the education system. Developments world-wide, in the country and in the school, however, have made it imperative to carry out a review of the B. Ed Special education curriculum (http://www.unza.zm/education/epsse). In response to the worldwide trend and Zambia’s Education policy on inclusive schooling as a strategy of meeting educational needs of more children with disabilities, the department has had to cater for the needs of student – teachers preparing to graduate as teachers for such children. The department decided to review the current degree programme so that it responds more meaningfully to the challenges the developments special and inclusive classes bring to the educational system. In addition, the HIV/AIDS pandemic requires that the Department prepare a teacher who will effectively counsel children infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. The Department therefore, decided to review the current degree programme to include Educational Psychology-based courses. This was with a view to strengthening the Counselling skills and knowledge of students of special education so that they are more able to deal with the impact of the psycho – social challenges of having a disability and the
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e HIV/AIDS pandemic on pupils with special educational needs (http://www.unza.zm/education/epsse). 2.4 Challenges Faced By Teachers and Learners In The Teaching And Learning Process. Students have long regarded science as a difficult subject because of hard and abstract concepts. Traditional science teaching has been depended mostly on visual instruction. This makes it difficult for visually impaired (VI) or partially sighted students included in regular classrooms to learn the concepts. Blind students on Classrooms should be adapted and instruction should be adjusted for better science teaching to VI students. The purpose of this study was to investigate how VI students learn science. The results of the data obtained via interviews and observations revealed that VI students need instructional and environmental accommodations to learn science. They need more tactual and audio experiences than visual instruction. The areas of science and mathematics have traditionally been inaccessible to students with visual impairments. Fields such as chemistry, physics, engineering, biology, and mathematics are common with visually-presented concepts and information. This visual information has not been made available for widespread use in a format easily accessible to blind and VI students. Visually impaired students were reported to have the same range of cognitive abilities as sighted students (Kumar, Ramasamy & Stefanich, 2001) and with accommodations can master higher-order science concepts as well as sighted students (Jones, Minogue, Oppewal, Cook and Broadwell, 2006). Stefanich and Norman (1996) in a national survey found that most science teachers and college science educators “have had little or no direct experience in teaching disabled students, they do not expose the students in methods classes to instructional strategies best suited for participation by all students, and often hold stereotypical views of what students with disabilities can and cannot do” (p. 51). A literature search for existing studies on instructional materials and strategies for teaching science to VI students has revealed that there is a severe shortage in this area of study. Students with usual impairments may have difficulties in understanding the subject due to traditional classroom instruction techniques. They can hear lectures but they may not have access to textbooks, classroom presentations, overhead projector transparencies, library
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e materials, and chalkboard. Unfortunately, visual learning is a large part of traditional instruction settings. Some VI students use Braille, but some have no knowledge of Braille. Most of them use adopted technology such as a computer, closed circuit TV (CCTV), enlargements, tapes, and image enhanced materials. According to Biggs (2004) findings of a recent study carried out by Lianing Normal University showed that more than half of the students polled at a Deaf school could not understand any of the SSC that was used by their hearing teachers. Only 20.8% said they understood completely, while teachers said they too were baffled by their student’s use of natural Sign Language. While the Deaf community prefers natural Sign language, most Deaf educators who are predominantly hearing favoured Sign Supported Chinese as they believe that it will help children to make the transition to spoken language. The lack of consensus on whether to use natural Sign language or Sign Supported Chinese in the classroom can also affect the linguistic development of children in the bilingual bicultural class (Biggs 2004). A formal and consistent signing system is beneficial but an incorrect and inconsistent use of Sign language may prove as detrimental as not learning any Sign language at all. Standley (2005) argues that an incomplete linguistic system may be one reason that educators of Deaf children learning English as second language have been unsuccessful in improving their student’s literacy rates. Research has shown that in situations where parents are providing random language pattern and inconsistent linguistic input, children are not able to utilize completely linguistic forms in the correct manner. Many Deaf children may be exposed to language patterns and inconsistent input from interpreters in educational settings in addition to irregular forms from parents at home. All these experiences tend to cause confusion in the mind of a Deaf child and pose as challenges in the language development of a Deaf child (Standley 2005). Conclusion Despite of all the above stated policies and strategies, the quality of education being provided to learners with special educational needs is still of low quality and needs to be improved in various ways. It is hoped that the findings from this study will help the government and other
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e stakeholders in implementing the already formulated policies to improve the learning standards of persons living with disabilities. Special education along with positive attitudes, high expectations, and well-prepared teachers and related service professionals can make the difference between a child’s success or failure in school and later in life.
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter encompasses the approaches used in the collection of data in this research. It will show the methods and techniques in the collection of data. This will include components such as research design, the study population from which the research will be conducted and the study sample will be collected. The research instruments used in the collection of data, the analysis of data, the ethical considerations, the time line or work plan of the research and finally the breakdown of the budget of the whole research. This chapter basically shows the whole process of the research from start to finish. 3.2 Research Design This research is based on a case study of Munali Secondary and Lusaka Girls Secondary Special Unit. This study took this approach as it is ideal for the purpose of investigating the development of particular situations over a period of time. Therefore this approach was appropriate for the investigation of the implementation of the Educational Policies concerning Special Education in selected inclusive schools. 3.3 Study Population This study will target all learners with special educational needs at the Munali secondary and Lusaka Girls Special Units. It will also include all the teachers in the special units and the school heads of the special units. The learners are important in this study because they are the ones currently going through the learning process. They know the daily difficulties and challenges they encounter in the education system. The school administration and teachers will be targeted because they have the experience and the knowledge of the state of teaching and learning of the learners with special educational needs in the special units. They might also be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the current system as well as the changes that need to be made in order to improve the academic performance of children with special educational needs at Munali secondary and Lusaka Girls special units and in Zambia at large.
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e 3.4 Study Sample The study sample consisted of 30 respondents. Twelve (12) respondents were picked from all the teachers with 8 from the special units and 4 from the regular teachers. Eighteen (18) learners with special educational needs were also picked from the special units. 3.5 Sampling Procedures This study used the purposive or judgment sampling procedure. At this school teachers and learners will be specifically targeted because teachers are the curriculum implementers while learners are the recipients of education. 2 (Two) members of staff which included heads of the special units were picked from all the 2 school administrations. Teachers and learners were chosen purposively. The teacher respondents included 4 regular teachers that taught in inclusive classrooms and 8 special education teachers from the special units. This was to enable the collection of data on inclusive education. The 18 learners included respondents with all disabilities (the blind, the deaf, and the albinos) this was to enable the collection of data from all forms of policy implementation aspects. 3.6 Research Instruments This research used questionnaires, interviews and an observation checklist. The questionnaires were given to the members of staff due to their daily busy schedules, this was meant to enable them answer the questionnaire during their free time. The interview schedules were used to collect data from the learners. This was to enable the rephrasing of questions and collection of data that may have not been included in the questions. Most importantly, direct observation was used to collect data that was visible and readily available for the researcher. 3.7 Data Collection Procedures The researcher first asked for permission from both the school administrations of Munali Secondary and Lusaka Girls Secondary. Once permission was granted, the researcher met the teachers and introduced himself and personally distributed the questionnaires to the respondents. At this point the researcher also undertook some observations using an observation checklist and interviewed learners. This was important as it helped to crosscheck and verify some information given by respondents in the questionnaires. The observations
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e employed to establish and collect any other information that may not have been captured through the interviews or questionnaires. The researcher returned to the school after 2 (two) days to collect the questionnaires. In considering matters of ethics, the researcher obtained a letter from the University of Zambia which was used as an introductory document to seek permission to carry out the research. The researcher also obtained permission from the school authorities because all the learners under the special unit are boarders and are under the custody of the school. 3.8 Data Analysis The data for this study was analyzed through detailed description and explanations which was given by the respondents. Contradictory and similar views were particularly analyzed and categorized into themes and patterns in order to draw conclusions. 3.9 Ethical Considerations Before administering the questionnaire the researcher clearly explained the purpose of the study to the participants. The participants were asked to take part in the study on voluntary basis and their confidentiality was assured. Conclusion This chapter has outlined the methodology used to collect and analyze the information for this study. In doing so it has defined the type of study as a case study. It has also looked at the study population involved which will basically be the teachers, learners and the school administrative officers. The chapter has defined the sample, sample size and procedures used to come up with the sample. The chapter has further discussed the instruments and the data collection methods which were used. Furthermore, this chapter has outlined the work plan and the budget for the research.
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction This chapter presents the findings of the study as they were gathered from the field. It will present the findings of the study on all the fundamental research questions which were under investigation. The presentation is based on all the data collected from the 30 respondents of the study through questionnaires for teachers, questionnaires for learners, interview schedule for learners and personal observation by the researcher. 4.2 Implementation of Special Educational Policies The study showed that the implementation of the 3 educational policies concerning special education still has much to be desired. The study revealed that the learners with special educational needs did not receive equal educational opportunities; the quality of education being provided to the learners was compromised due to lack of sufficient teaching and learning resources; and the Ministry of Education hardly supervised the provision of special education in the schools 4.3 Teacher Training in Special education (Braille and Sign Language) The study revealed that most of the special education teachers received training in both Braille and Sign Language while the regular teacher did not receive any special education training at all. The table below show the figures out of the 12 (Twelve) respondents:
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e Figure 4.3 Training in Special Education (Braille and Sign language). 4.3.1 Professional Teacher Qualification As illustrated in the figure below, the 8 (Eight) Special education teachers had different academic qualifications in Special education. 5 (Five) teacher had Bachelor’s Degrees while 3 (Three) had Diplomas in Special education. Figure 4.3.1 Academic Qualification of Special Education Teachers in percentage 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Braille Sign language No Training in Sp. Ed NumberofTeachers Training Training in Special Education 62% 38% Academic Qualification Bachelor Degree Diploma
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e 4.3.2 Comprehensive Training in Special Education Some of the Special education teachers felt that they did not receive comprehensive training in Braille and Sign language. The figure below shows the percentage of special education teachers in reference to their training. Figure 4.3.2 Comprehensive Training of In Braille and Sign Language 4.4 Challenges faced by Teachers The table below shows the requirements the schools need to effectively provide special education to their learners with special educational needs. Books Human Resource Equipment Sign language and Braille text books Sign language translators and competent braille teachers Perkins Braillor, Braille transcribers, Magnifiers, Computers and Embossers. Sign language and braille activity books Detailed sign language dictionaries Table 4.4 Requirements to help Teachers deliver special education 0 2 4 6 Braille Sign Language NumberofTeachers Comprehensive Training in Special Education Yes No
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e 4.5 Subject Categories offered to Learners with Special Educational Needs The study revealed that the blind learners did not take any practical subjects as opposed to the partially sighted and the hearing impaired. Figure 4.5 Subject categories taken by the Three Impairment categories. The graph above shows the comparison of subject categories taken by the 3 (Three) disability categories. 4.6 Distribution of Learners with Special Educational Needs The graph below show the distribution on the learner respondents according to their sex Figure 4.6 Distribution of learners according to sex. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hearing impaired Blind Partially sighted NumberofLearners Impairment Subject Categories Practical Subjects Theory Subjects Both 0 5 10 15 20 Male Female Total NumberofLearners Sex
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e 4.7 Academic Performance Most of the teachers felt that some learners with special educational needs progresses at the same level with the ‘Normal’ learners. The chart below shows the teachers’ response in percentages. Figure 4.7 Level of progress between the ‘Normal’ and learners with special needs 4.8 Access to Text Books The learners with different impairments expressed different opinions on their access to text books in school. The graph below shows their responses. Figure 4.8 Access to text books in school. 17% 33% 50% Academic Progress Yes No Some 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Hearing impaired Visually impaired Numberoflearners Impairment Access to Text books Yes No Sometimes
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e 4.9 Provision of Classroom Notes Learners with visual impairments in inclusive classrooms also expressed different views on the provision of classroom notes by teachers. The table below shows their view in percentage. Very Helpful Helpful Not Helpful 0% 10% 90% Table 4.9 Provision of Notes to Visually impaired learners. 4.10 Participation in Co-curricular Activities The study also revealed that some learners with special educational needs took part in co- curricular activities. Below are some of the activities they take part in according to impairment. Impairment Activity Hearing Impairments Soccer, Netball, Traditional Dances Visual Impairments Singing, Drama, Traditional Dances Table 4.10 Activities learners with special educational needs take part in. Conclusion At the end of the data collection it was evident that the teachers were finding challenges in implementing the educational policies concerning special education due to several reasons which include lack of comprehensive training and inadequate teaching and learning resources. The following chapter presents the discussion of the findings in detail to reveal the challenges the teachers face in implementing the educational policies and the challenges the learners face in the learning process.
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 5.1 Introduction This chapter presents the detailed discussion of the findings presented in Chapter 4 (Four) in line with the outlined objectives stated in Chapter 1 (One). The discussion of the findings is presented in critical themes generated during the study. The themes are presented in headings and subheadings representing the themes. 5.2 Implementation of Special Educational Policies The following are the 3 educational policies concerning special education (MoE, 1996); 1) The Ministry of Education will ensure equality of educational opportunity for children with special education needs. 2) The Ministry is committed to providing education of particularly good quality to learners with special educational needs. 3) The Ministry will improve and strengthen the supervision and management of special education across the country. The study revealed that these policies were not being fully implemented in the two schools. It was evident that the schools did not provide equal educational opportunities to the learners with visual and hearing impairments. The learners with visual impairments were not able to take practical subjects such as Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry due to the lack of teaching and learning resources and equipment. This forced the visually impaired to only take part in theoretical subjects such as History, Religious education and English. Teachers of the visually impaired had to modify the general curriculum themselves, therefore they only taught what they felt was important. This shows that different schools may be providing different aspects of the general school curriculum to the visually impaired, hence the provision of equal educational opportunities may not be achieved. The hearing impaired were able to take both the practical and theoretical subjects, however, they too lacked the provision of sufficient visual aids to help them understand certain concepts; and sign language literature to help them learn new words
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e and how to sign them. Therefore, the visually and hearing impaired learners are hindered form fully accessing the general school curriculum. The provision of equal educational opportunities is directly proportional to the provision of quality education to the learners with special educational needs. This is because the provision of different educational opportunities hinders the learners with special educational needs from fully accessing the general school curriculum. The teachers revealed that they have not been observed by any Ministry of Education personnel except the school administration. This shows that the third policy is equally not fully implemented. Therefore, there is need for the full implementation of all the 3 educational policies if the Ministry of Education is to achieve full inclusion. 5.3 Teacher Training in Special Education (Braille and Sign Language) Most of the teachers teaching learners with special educational needs revealed that they were trained in special education. 8 (Eight) out the 12 (Twelve) revealed that they had undergone training in special education. However, 4 (Four) out of the 12 (Twelve) respondents were regular teachers teaching learners with visual impairments in their inclusive classrooms. They stated that they did not have any form of special education training; .and that they relied on the special education teachers at the special unit for the administration of tests and any other assessments. On the other hand, most of the teachers trained in Special education felt that they did not receive comprehensive training in special education. The teachers teaching learners with hearing revealed that they felt that they did not receive comprehensive training in Sign language. Only 2 (Two) out of the 8 (Eight) special education teachers felt they had comprehensive training in Sign language. They stated that the training was more on the theoretical than the practical aspect. They also revealed that there was less time dedicated to the course as compared to its content. A teacher of the hearing impaired learners stated that Sign language was indeed a language and hence is requires a considerable amount of time to practice and learn it. The teachers revealed that they learnt most of the sign language from the learners themselves and a deaf teacher. The teachers also stated that they felt that ZAMISE offered more detailed and practical content of sign language than UNZA.
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e Like the in the situation of the teachers teaching the hearing impaired, the teachers teaching the visually impaired also felt they did not receive comprehensive training in Braille. Only 3 (Three) out of the 8 (Eight) special education teachers felt that they had comprehensive training in Braille. They too complained of the training being more theoretical and less practical. They stated that their training was bulky and was done in a short period of time. A teacher revealed that he felt that Braille was a sophisticated way of writing and that it is a difficult skill to master for a sighted person, hence he stated that he felt that the course was supposed to be given more time to be mastered. The teachers for the visually impaired learners also felt that the training in Braille was more detailed and practical at ZAMISE than at UNZA. They revealed that ZAMISE offered more practical work toward braille as compared to UNZA. The study revealed 5 (Five) out of the 8 (Eight) Special education teacher had a Bachelor’s degree in Special education while 3 (Three) had a Diploma in Special education. 5.4 Challenges faced by Teachers and Learners 5.4.1 Challenges faced by Teachers The lack of sufficient teaching and learning resources was alluded to as the main challenge faced by both the teachers and learners. The teachers teaching learners with visual impairments cited the lack of teaching aids such as tactile learning and teaching models, braille and large print text books, magnifiers, computers, talking calculators, transcribers and embossers just to mention a few. The teachers alluded to the lack of the teaching and learning material when giving reasons as to why some of the visually impaired learners did not take practical subjects completely and why some component of some subjects were not taught. A teacher revealed that the teaching of subjects such as Biology and Geography to visually impaired learners required the use of concrete or tactile models for the learners to grasp the concept being taught in a lesson. A teacher teaching Biology to the visually impaired learners gave an illustration on how teaching the concept of the heart, its shape and how if functions to a learner without sight. The teacher revealed that the learner requires a concrete object to help him/her to develop mental visual images of what a heart looks like. The teacher also explained that hands to the visually impaired are like eyes to the sighted learners and hence, tactile models to the visually impaired learners
  24. 24. 24 | P a g e act like visual charts to the sighted learners. Therefore, the provision of tactile teaching and learning models plays a very important role in the teaching and learning of Geography, Biology and History to the visually impaired learners. The teachers cited the lack of teaching and learning materials as the main challenge they face in teaching the visually impaired learners. The teachers stated that the schools did not provide them with the tactile teaching and learning materials, hence it was up to them to improvise and develop the teaching and learning aids they required in a particular lesson. The teachers also revealed that they were not allocated any allowance by the school or the government to finance the procurement of the teaching and learning aids. Therefore this was stated to be a cost on the teacher which consequently resulted in the teachers not teaching some essential topics to the visually impaired learners. The teachers cited several challenges they face in the teaching of the hearing impaired learners. The lack of activity books, story books, teachers’ guides and inadequate materials such as dictionaries. The teachers also stated that the limited vocabulary of Sign language, that is the terms used in subjects like science and mathematics are hard for them. This makes it very difficult to learn under the current vocabulary. A teacher revealed that sign language did not have signs for words like ‘atom’ or ‘molecule’ in Physics and Chemistry and new words like kenyapithecus, homohabilis in History; hence it was a challenge to teach such concepts in sign language. The teachers also stated that the way sentences are constructed in sign language is in short cut form therefore it was difficult for them to mark their compositions and essays. English is not their first language so they are not taught from the known to the unknown. This made it a challenge to help the learners some concepts. 5.4.2 Challenges faced by Visually and Hearing Impaired Learners The visually impaired learners also revealed that they too faced challenges in learning due to the lack of the necessary learning materials. Both the partially sighted and the blind learners stated that they had challenges in all the subjects they learnt. The partially sighted learners who took both practical and theoretical subjects stated that the school lacked resources such as large print text books and magnifiers to help them maximize the use of their residual vision; hence
  25. 25. 25 | P a g e they faced challenges in studying from the small print text books as they had to strain their eyes to read which consequently resulted in the worsening of their residual vision. The totally blind learners like the partially sighted learners equally revealed that they too faced challenges in the aspects of the curriculum offered to them. They pointed out to the lack of braille textbooks, braille transcribers and embossers as the main cause of the challenges they face. The visually impaired learners also stated that they also faced challenges learning in the inclusive classes they were placed in. They revealed that they felt that their learning needs were not considered during the teaching/learning process and hence their self-esteem toward learning was greatly affected. The totally blind learners also revealed that the teaching methods were based on the sighted learners’ understanding levels and less consideration was made for the blind learners. The blind learners also stated that they relied on the sighted during reading lessons to read out loud for them to take part in the lessons. A blind learner revealed that this made them feel deprived of their independence. The visually impaired learners also cited the lack of the provision of notes as one of the main challenges they faced. Most visually impaired learners revealed that they were not learning at the same pace as the sighted learners in the classroom; therefore, they needed to be given notes or handouts for them to go through during their free time. However, some of the visually impaired learners stated that due to the lack of the provision of notes, they relied on the notes obtained from their senior visually impaired learners. The blind learners also expressed concern on how the tests and examinations were handled. Some visually impaired learners stated that some of their examination papers went missing during the marking process. A learner revealed that this factor caused some of their visually impaired friends to quit school and remain at home because they failed to qualify to secondary school. The study revealed the teachers had limited knowledge in sign language and relied on the learners themselves for most signs during the learning and teaching process. The learners also alluded to the lack of sign language dictionaries in the schools. The learners stated that it was difficult for them to learn new words due to the lack of a guide, especially because the teachers
  26. 26. 26 | P a g e also relied on them to learn new signs for new words. A learner stated that most of the time in the lessons was spent mostly on the correct sign for a word than learning new concepts. A learner stated that Deaf learners are examined like “hearing” learners; hence they face challenges in comprehending certain questions that require them to have the knowledge of sound. Like the visually impaired learners, the hearing impaired learners also faced challenges in their learning. However, the hearing impaired learners were not in inclusive classrooms like the visually impaired learners. The learners with hearing impairments learnt from Deaf units where only special education teachers taught them. The study also revealed that hearing impaired learners learnt both practical and theoretical subjects. In spite of being taught by experienced teachers in sign language, the hearing impaired learners faced challenges in their learning process. 5.5 Strategies used by Teachers The teachers have devised strategies that help them to effectively teach the hearing impaired learners. For those words which the teachers do not know how to sign, they either consulted other more experienced teachers or asked from the pupils how the words are signed. If the word is new to both the learners and the teachers, the class as a whole and the teacher collectively give that word a new sign. Such signs will, however, only be known to that particular class and not be standardized or universal. In some cases, some teachers try to deal with some words which they think to be difficult for some pupils by writing them on the board and explaining them in advance. Some teachers talked about some school organized workshops in Sign language which also helped them to learn Sign language. Also some of them mentioned close interaction with the pupils. They said this was very helpful to fully understand their Sign language. The extensive use of the chalkboard and other visual aids is another good strategy used by the teachers. It is evident that the hearing impaired learners heavily depend on visual aids to understand many things. By explaining the notes which are written on the board, the children may get to see the context in which certain words are used. Also when it comes to difficult words, it is very easy to explain them in the context of the whole sentence or paragraph.
  27. 27. 27 | P a g e However, there is a risk that learners may concentrate on the notes on the board instead of the teachers’ explanations. A teacher revealed that the use of teaching and learning materials when teaching the visually impaired learners is an essential need to teaching and learning for the visually impaired. Due to the lack of these teaching and learning resources, the teachers stated that they devised teaching strategies to help them teach their learners. The teachers stated a number of strategies they use in teaching the visually impaired learners. The following are some of the strategies teachers use: Seating Arrangement The seating arrangement was cited as one of the teaching and learning strategy that some teachers used in their classrooms. It was stated that placed the partially sighted learners were in the front of the classroom closer to the board to enable them to use their vision to learn, and to helped boost the learners’ self-esteem in the learning process. Dictating notes The dictating of notes in the class at a slower rate was used to enable the visually impaired learners to take notes at the same time with the sighted learners. The teachers stated that they used this strategy to make the visually impaired learners to feel included in the learning process and to do away with the aspect of giving out notes, which is a cost on the teachers. The teachers stated that this was a helpful strategy as the schools did not have braille embossers and transcribers to convert ink print to braille print; hence this strategy helps both the teachers and learners in the teaching and learning process. Teaching and Learning Models Teaching and learning models were cited as the best strategy visually impaired learners learnt most concepts that require the use vision to understand. Teachers of practical subjects such as Geography, Mathematics, Numeracy, and the Sciences, cited that the use of teaching and learning models helped them ease their work and also helped the visually impaired learners learn effectively. They also revealed that the use of concrete learning and teaching models helped the learners create mental visual cue of the concepts being taught. They also stated that
  28. 28. 28 | P a g e these models helped the visually impaired learners recall concepts learnt with ease as opposed to when they learnt them without the use of concrete models. Conclusion By the end of the of the data analysis, it was evident that the schools had challenges in implementing the special educational policies in the schools due to lack of comprehensive training, lack of teaching and learning resources. The learners too affirmed that their learning was compromised by the lack of learning resources which include assistive equipment and textbooks. However, the teachers devised teaching strategies to help them teach the visually and hearing impaired learners. Strategies such as dictation, the use of tactile teaching models, extensive use of the chalkboard and the formulation of signs for new words, were cited to be helpful in the teaching of the learners with visual and hearing impairments. Chapter Six presents the conclusion and recommendations obtained from the study based on the findings discussed in this chapter.
  29. 29. 29 | P a g e CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1 Introduction This chapter presents the conclusions developed by the researcher after conducting the research and the recommendations obtained from the study through the research instruments and the researchers’ observations during the course of the study. It presents the recommendations given by the teachers and learners and the researcher. 6.2 Conclusion of the Study Based on the findings of this study, it is evident that state of the implementation of educational policies in the selected schools leaves much to be desired. The study established that most of the special education teachers lacked comprehensive training in special education; hence their service delivery is greatly affected. The lack of teaching and learning material was also a significant factor affecting the teaching and learning process of both the hearing and visually impaired learners. The lack of a standard curriculum for the visually impaired learners was also discovered to be a factor contributing to the poor delivery of the curriculum to the visually impaired learners; hence there is need for the Ministry of Education to create a school curriculum for the visually impaired learners to enable the provision of equal educational opportunities. This will help in the visually impaired learners to have access to a uniform curriculum country wide. It will also help reduce the load of creating a classroom curriculum on the teachers. In regard to the coping strategies used by teachers of the hearing impaired, teachers simply learn Sign language from the pupils themselves. They also rely a lot on the chalk board and pointing. Where they come across new signs which are unknown to both the teacher and the pupils, they simply create new signs. However the challenge is that the newly created signs will only be known to that particular class, hence it contributes to the many differences in signs from school to school. The study also revealed that language is the biggest challenge faced by pupils. Most of the hearing impaired learners interviewed revealed that they could not write or comprehend the
  30. 30. 30 | P a g e English language very well. The teachers have also affirmed to the fact that the way the hearing impaired learners sign is the way they write. The teachers seem ignorant about Sign language grammar and morphology. 6.3 Recommendations 6.3.1 Implementation of Special Educational Policies From the findings obtained in this study, several recommendations were made in relation to the implementation of special educational policies in the selected schools. The teachers from both schools felt that the school could help in the improving of the learning conditions of both the visually and hearing impaired learners. Nine (9) out of the Twelve (12) teachers felt that the school could involve the Parents and Teachers’ Association (PTA) to raise funds to procure teaching and learning material for their learners with impairments. They believed that the parents had the capacity to contribute greatly to their children’s education by making donations to the school termly or annually. The learners also felt that the school could play a significant role in helping improve the state of their education. A learner stated that the school can involve a Non-Governmental Organizations such as the Lions Club to help them procure teaching and learning materials. Another hearing impaired learner stated that being taught by a hearing impaired teacher was preferable because he/she understands the hearing impaired learners more than a hearing teacher, hence the school could request the Ministry of Education for hearing impaired teachers to be allocated to teach in schools with hearing impaired learners. In a quest to improve the learning standards of learners with special educational needs, the hearing and visually impaired especially, the government through the Ministry of Health should introduce early screening programs in communities, special schools and special units to enable the early detection of the learning disabilities in children. Early eye and ear screening in the communities will enable the detection of visual and hearing impairments in children and hence help the government to plan for early intervention measures to lessen the effects of the impairments in the children. The government through the Ministry of Education should introduce early language intervention for children with hearing impairments in order to enable improved literacy levels.
  31. 31. 31 | P a g e The government through the Ministry of Education should introduce braille and sign language as independent courses at diploma and degree levels in all teacher training institutions. This would equip teachers with sufficient knowledge on how to educate the hearing and visually impaired. The creation of a deliberate policy to make special education a compulsory aspect of all teacher training programs could also help in the implementation of the educational policies regarding special education. This would help in achieving inclusion in all schools because all teachers will be competent to teach persons with special educational needs. Government through the Ministry of Education should also introduce Sign language as a taught and examinable subject in schools. This would ensure total emersion of the hearing impaired in their first language which is Sign language while learning written English at the same time as a second language. As observed from the study, the teachers of the hearing impaired learners face serious challenges with regard to teaching technical subjects due to lack of appropriate signs. They recommended that the Ministry of Education and the Deaf association in conjunction with the University of Zambia and some practicing teachers should conduct research in order to produce necessary technical signs for use in specific subjects such as Science, Mathematics, Biology and other technical subjects. The teachers of the hearing impaired learners noted that their learners were subjected to the same examinations with the hearing. In this regard they recommended that the Examination Council of Zambia (ECZ) officials be oriented on the morphology of the hearing impaired. The teachers recommended that the hearing impaired learners be exempted from aspects of the examinations that include knowledge of sounds. It was observed that there was no curriculum designed specifically for the visually impaired and that the teachers independently selected the aspects of the general school curriculum to offer to their learners. Therefore, the Ministry of Education should develop a curriculum for the visually impaired to enable the uniform delivery of the curriculum to the visually impaired country wide.
  32. 32. 32 | P a g e It is hoped that once implemented, these recommendations will help improve the implantation of the educational policies regarding special education and the quality of education for learners with special educational needs. Conclusion More research needs to be done to determine the best coping and implementation strategies to use when teaching the hearing and visually impaired learners. The findings of such researches could determine the basis of better implementation of educational policies in schools country wide.
  33. 33. 33 | P a g e REFERENCES American Printing House for the Blind, (1992). Barraga, N. C., and Erin, J. N. (1992). Visual handicaps and learning (3rd Ed.). Austin, TX: Pro- Ed. Biggs C. (2004). A Bilingual and Bicultural Model of Teaching Deaf Children in China. Report on the Experiences of Bilingual Bicultural Project in China. UNICEF. Corn, A.L., (1989). Instruction in the use of vision for children and adults with low vision: Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 95 (7) (2001). Deaflinx (2010). Fighting Audism through Empowerment and Education: Deaf Education Option Guide. www.ldeaflinx.com/DeafEd/OptionGuide/ASL.html (Retrieved April 2, 2010). Education in Zambia (2016) http://www.educationinzambia.com/zamise Heller, K. W., Alberto, P. A., Forney, P. E., and Schwartzman, M. N. (1996). Understanding physical, sensory, and health impairments. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Jones, M. G., Minogue, J., Oppewal, T., Cook, M. P. and Broadwell, B. (2006). Visualizing without vision at the microscale: Students with visual impairments explore cells with touch. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(5), 345-351. Kumar, D., Ramasamy, R. and Stefanich, G. (2001). Science for students with visual impairments: Teaching suggestions and policy implications for secondary educators. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 5(3). Retrieved June 5, 2003, from http://unr.edu/homepage/crowther/ejse/kumar2etal.html. Ministry of Education (1977). Educational Reforms: Proposals and Recommendations. Lusaka: Government Printers. Ministry of Education (1992). Focus on Learning: Strategies for the Development of School Education in Zambia. Lusaka. Ministry of Education (1996). Educating our future. Lusaka: Ministry of Education. Ministry of Education (2011) Education Act Bill 2011.
  34. 34. 34 | P a g e Ministry of Finance (2000). Census Report 2000. Lusaka: Central Statistics Office. Ministry of Finance (2010), Census Report 2010. Lusaka: Central Statistics Office. Ministry of Finance and National Planning (2006). Fifth National Development Plan 2006- 2010.Lusaka. Start American Sign Language (2010). History of Sign Language. www.startasl.com Stefanich, G. P. and Norman, K. I. (1996). Teaching science to students with disabilities: Experiences and perceptions of classroom teachers and science educators. A special publication of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science. The University of Zambia www.unza.zm last updated on Thursday, 07 November 2013 07:09. Tuttle, D. W. and Ferrell, K. A. (1995). Visual impairment. In E. L. Meyen and T. M. Skrtic (Eds.), Special education and student disability: An introduction—Traditional, emerging, and alternative perspectives (4th ed., pp. 487–532). Denver, CO: Love. Wakumelo N.M. (2009). Provision of Education for the Deaf in Zambia: The Situation and Challenges. Paper Presented at University of Zambia School of Education and the Directorate of Research and Graduate Studies Conference. August 2009. 93
  35. 35. 35 | P a g e APPENDICES Appendix 1: Questionnaires for teachers Dear respondent, My names are Sabao Moses a student at the University of Zambia main campus in the School of Education pursuing a degree in Special Education. You have been selected to help in a research which seeks to find out if the education system at your school is providing adequate special education services to learners with special educational needs. You have the liberty to either help provide information or not. However, your contribution by answering the few questions that are in this questionnaire will be beneficial towards generating information concerning the various challenges faced by learners with disabilities. .................................................................................................................................................... Instructions  You are required to provide answers to this questionnaire by ticking against the brackets that have been provided after the question.  Provide short notes in the blank spaces given.  Do not indicate your name on this questionnaire to ensure that the information that you will produce is treated with confidentiality. 1. What is your gender? Male [ ] Female [ ] 2. Have you undergone any training in special education? Yes [ ] No [ ] 3. If your answer to question 2 is ‘Yes’, what qualification have you obtained in Special Education and in what field? Qualification
  36. 36. 36 | P a g e Master’s Degree [ ] Bachelor’s Degree [ ] Diploma [ ] Certificate [ ] Field Sign Language [ ] Braille [ ] Both [ ] 4. If your answer to question 2 was ‘No’, how do you communicate with the learners with hearing impairments in your classroom? Briefly explain ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………............................................................... 5. What kind of disabilities do learners in your class/classes have? Specify. a. ……………………………………………………………………………. b. …………………………………………………………………………….. c. …………………………………………………………………………….. 6. What subject(s) do you offer? a) .................................................................................................................................... b) .................................................................................................................................... c) ……………………………………………………………………………………… d) ……………………………………………………………………………………… e) ……………………………………………………………………………………… f) ……………………………………………………………………………………… g) ……………………………………………………………………………………… h) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7. List the subjects not offered and provide brief reasons why they are not offered. Subjects a) ………………………………………………………………. b) ………………………………………………………………. c) ………………………………………………………………. Reasons
  37. 37. 37 | P a g e a) …………………………………………………............................................ ........................................................................................................................ b) ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… c) ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 8. Briefly cite the methods you use to teach your learners and why you use them. a) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Reason ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Reason ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 9. What are some of the academic challenges faced by the learners in your class? a) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… c) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10. How do you cope with the challenges in the teaching of learners with special educational needs?
  38. 38. 38 | P a g e ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11. Do learners with disabilities progress at the same rate with the ‘normal’ learners in terms of academic performance in your school? Yes [ ] No [ ] Some [ ] 12. If your answer in question 11 was ‘Yes’, what do you think is the cause of the disparity? ................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................................. 13. Are the classrooms easily accessible to learners with physical disabilities? Yes [ ] No [ ] 14. Are you able to read and write braille? Yes [ ] No [ ] 15. Does the school have text books in braille print? Yes [ ] No [ ] 16. Are the text books easily accessible to learners? Yes [ ] No [ ] 17. Have you been supervised by any Ministry of Education officials? Yes [ ] No [ ] 18. Are you supervised by the school administration? Yes [ ] No [ ] 19. What do you think the school can do to help reduce the challenges you face in teaching the learners with special educational needs? a) .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................. b) .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................
  39. 39. 39 | P a g e c) .................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... 20. What do you think the government can do to help reduce the challenges you face in teaching the learners with special educational needs? a) ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… b) ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… c) ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… Thank you for your cooperation.
  40. 40. 40 | P a g e Appendix 2: Questionnaires for the learners with disabilities (for physically and hearing impaired) Dear respondents, My names are Sabao Moses, a student at the University of Zambia main campus in the School of Education pursuing a degree in Special Education. You have been selected to help in a research which seeks to find out if the education system at Munali secondary school is providing adequate special education services to learners with special educational needs. You have the liberty to either help provide information or not. However, your contribution by answering the few questions that are in this questionnaire will be beneficial towards generating information concerning the various challenges faced by learners with disabilities. .................................................................................................................................................... Instructions  You are advised to provide the answers of your choice to this questionnaire by ticking in the brackets that have been provided next to the question and where possible.  Provide short notes in the blank spaces that are given.  You are not advised to include your name or other sensitive details to ensure that the information you will give is treated with confidentiality. 1. Gender? Male [ ] Female [ ] 2. What is your age group? 8-10 years [ ] 11-13 years [ ] 14-16 years [ ] 17-19 years [ ] 20 years and above [ ] 3. What grade are you in?
  41. 41. 41 | P a g e Grade 8 [ ] Grade 9 [ ] Grade 10 [ ] Grade 11 [ ] Grade 12 [ ] 4. Specifically indicate below the type of disability that you have. a) ..................................................................................................................... b) ..................................................................................................................... 5. How do persons without disabilities or impairments relate to you? Very well [ ] Well [ ] Not well [ ] 6. Do you usually require assistance to go to the classrooms and back? Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes [ ] 7. Is the school campus designed in a way that makes it easy for you to easily move without help? Yes [ ] No [ ] 8. Do you have access to text books in school? Yes [ ] Sometimes [ ] Not at all [ ] 9. If the answer to question8 is; ‘Sometimes’ OR ‘Not at all’, give reasons for your answer. i)............................................................................................................................................. ii)............................................................................................................................................. iii)............................................................................................................................................ 10. If the school does not provide text books, where do you access them from? Briefly explain ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………….…………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………....………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  42. 42. 42 | P a g e 11. How helpful are the teachers to you in accessing of class notes? Very helpful [ ] Helpful [ ] Not helpful [ ] 12. Briefly indicate the learning challenges you face. a) ............................................................................................................................................... b) .............................................................................................................................................. c) .............................................................................................................................................. d) ............................................................................................................................................. 13. Do you participate in various academic and social activities that happen in this school? Yes [ ] No [ ] If NO, briefly explain why. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… If ‘Yes’, state the kind activities you take part in. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………….. 14. Write down in brief what you would want the school to do in order that some of the problems you are facing may be reduced. a) .......................................................................................................................................... b) .......................................................................................................................................... c) .......................................................................................................................................... d) …………………………………………………………………………………………... e) ……………………………………………………………………………………………
  43. 43. 43 | P a g e Thank you VERY MUCH! Appendix 3: Interview Schedule for visually impaired learners Dear respondents, My names are Sabao Moses, a student at the University of Zambia main campus in the School of Education pursuing a degree in Special Education. You have been selected to help in a research which seeks to find out if the education system at Munali secondary school is providing adequate special education services to learners with special educational needs. You have the liberty to either help provide information or not. However, your contribution by answering the few questions that are in this questionnaire will be beneficial towards generating information concerning the various challenges faced by learners with disabilities. 1. What is your age group? 8-10 years [ ] 11-13 years [ ] 14-16 years [ ] 17-19 years [ ] 20 years and above [ ] 2. . What grade are you in? Grade 8 [ ] Grade 9 [ ] Grade 10 [ ] Grade 11 [ ] Grade 12 [ ] 3. How do persons without disabilities or impairments relate to you? Very well [ ] Well [ ] Not well [ ] 4. Do you usually require assistance to go to the classrooms and back? Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes [ ] 5. Is the school campus designed in a way that makes it easy for you to easily move without help? Yes [ ] No [ ] 6. Do you have access to braille print text books in school? Yes [ ] Sometimes [ ] Not at all [ ] 7. Where do you access the braille print text book when they are not provided by the school? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………
  44. 44. 44 | P a g e 8. How helpful are the teachers to you in accessing of class notes? Very helpful [ ] Helpful [ ] Not helpful [ ] 9. What are some of the various challenges you face from the time you came to this school. i)............................................................................................................................................... ii).............................................................................................................................................. iii)............................................................................................................................................. iv)............................................................................................................................................. 10. Do you participate in various academic and social activities that happen in this school? Yes [ ] No [ ] 11. What are some of the activities you take part in? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12. What would you want the school to do so that some of the problems you are facing may be reduced? i).......................................................................................................................................... ii).......................................................................................................................................... iii).......................................................................................................................................... iv)…………………………………………………………………………………………... v)…………………………………………………………………………………………… Thank you very much for your cooperation and contribution.

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