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PUBLIC	POLICY:
CeDEM ASIA	2016	
Morten	Meyerhoff	Nielsen
UNU-EGOV	/	TTU-RNS
Daegu	(SK),	6-9	December	2016
eGOVERNMENT AND	...
BACKGROUND
AND	KEY	QUESTION
• Authors	compared	the	eGovernment efforts,	achievements	and	
governance	models	of	Denmark	and	Japan
• Found	that	Japan	co...
THE	METHODOLOGY
Step	1:	Classic literature	review
with	“berry	picking”	to	identify	
theoretical	and	conceptual	
model	and/or	research	gaps...
BACKGROUND	INDICATORS
• Internet	access
• Internet	use
• eBanking use
• eCommerce use
• eService	use
NATIONAL	GOVERNANCE	A...
Regional	
administrations
MunicipalitiesMinistries	and	
agencies
CENTRAL REGIONAL LOCAL
KEY	INFLUENCING	FACTORS
Governance...
Public	service	is	service	provided	by	government	to	people living	
within	its	jurisdiction,	either	directly	(through	the	p...
eGovernment is	the	use	of	IT	and	technology	
in	the	provision	of	information	and	services	to	citizens	
and	businesses.	
…e...
CONTEXTS	AND	FINDINGS
DENMARK,	JAPAN
Denmark	[41] Japan	[41]
Population 5,581,503 126,919,659
Territorial	size 43,094	km2 377,915	km2
Population	density 129.5	...
Denmark	[52,	53] Japan	[52,	53]
National	institutional		
framework					and
governance
Centralised model.
National, regiona...
USERS	ARE	INCREASINGLY	ONLINE
2000 2005 2010 2014
Denmark 63,01	/	1,26 100,58	/	24,80 115,67	/	38,44 125,89	/	42,34
Japan ...
eService availability Degree	of	digitisation (i.e.	%	of	service	delivery	volume	online)
2012 2015
Denmark Japan Denmark Ja...
‘
Danish Regions
(5 regions)
Management
committee of Danish
Regions
Cabinet
committee of
coordination
Cabinet
committee on...
WEAK	MANDATES,	OVERLAPPING	ROLES,	
NATIONAL	BUT	FRAGMENTED	COORDINATION,	
LIMITED	FOLLOW-UP,	KEY	ACTORS	EXCLUDED
CONCLUDING
OBSERVATIONS
The	Danish	governance	model	continue	to	prove	its	worth.	
Current	2016-2020	strategy	seems	less	ambitious	with	weaker	KPIs...
CONTACT
MORTEN	MEYERHOFF	NIELSEN
United	Nations	University,	Operating	Unit	on	Policy-Driven	Electronic	Governance /
Tallin...
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eGovernment and Governance: The Danish‐Japanese timelines and models compared

CeDEM Asia 2016 paper presentation on 7 December in Dague, South Korea.
For paper: http://bit.ly/2h1AEzv
For conference: http://bit.ly/2h4eahQ
For conference programme: http://bit.ly/2g9f9uY

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eGovernment and Governance: The Danish‐Japanese timelines and models compared

  1. 1. PUBLIC POLICY: CeDEM ASIA 2016 Morten Meyerhoff Nielsen UNU-EGOV / TTU-RNS Daegu (SK), 6-9 December 2016 eGOVERNMENT AND GOVERNANCE: THE DANISH-JAPANESE MODELS AND TIMELINES COMPARED
  2. 2. BACKGROUND AND KEY QUESTION
  3. 3. • Authors compared the eGovernment efforts, achievements and governance models of Denmark and Japan • Found that Japan compared to Denmark had: - Superior infrastructure - Similar % of citizen online • Concluded that Japan could learn from the Danish approach to: - Standardized formats and processes - Share components and contents, esp. unique identifiers and digital signatures - Coordinated and convenient services for the users - Involve users to develop user-centric services - Inter-agency collaboration to achieve those goals • Question is whether this still holds? MEYERHOFF & IGARI 2012
  4. 4. THE METHODOLOGY
  5. 5. Step 1: Classic literature review with “berry picking” to identify theoretical and conceptual model and/or research gaps Step 2: Classic qualitative multi- case country studies on governance and cooperation models (iterations) Step 3: Update country studies (iterations), conceptual model, conclusions OVERALL APPROACH
  6. 6. BACKGROUND INDICATORS • Internet access • Internet use • eBanking use • eCommerce use • eService use NATIONAL GOVERNANCE AND COOPERATION MODEL • Institutional framework and governance • Decentralisation of government authority EFFECTS • eServices in place • Service delivery volumes per channel CONCEPTURAL FRAMEWORK NATIONAL APPROACH TO eGOVERNMENT Responsibility for eGovernment: • Strategy • Action plan • Initiation, development, coordination, monitoring and evaluation • Chair • Host organisation and secretariate • Member oragnisations eGovernment elements: • Strategy underpinned by action plan and KPIs • Legality of strategy and action plan
  7. 7. Regional administrations MunicipalitiesMinistries and agencies CENTRAL REGIONAL LOCAL KEY INFLUENCING FACTORS Governance structure (e.g. entralised / top-down vs. federal, top-down) Level of autonomy (e.g. high vs. low) Proportion of service provision at each level of government (e.g. central vs. decentral) Society, pre-conditions, attitudes, level of influence (e.g. high vs. low) STAKEHOLDERS Private sector vendors, academia, civic society, end- users SOCIETY
  8. 8. Public service is service provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services (McGregor et. al., 1982). Two types of public service: Core public services (i.e. what you must do as a citizen, thus legally required), and; Public value adding service (i.e. what you like to do as an individual or out of civic duty) Service consist of a combination of information, transaction and data. DEFINITIONS
  9. 9. eGovernment is the use of IT and technology in the provision of information and services to citizens and businesses. …eGovernance encompass all processes of governing, thus relating to the processes and decisions oriented toward defining actions, granting power and verifying performance. … the e is for electronic. DEFINITIONS
  10. 10. CONTEXTS AND FINDINGS DENMARK, JAPAN
  11. 11. Denmark [41] Japan [41] Population 5,581,503 126,919,659 Territorial size 43,094 km2 377,915 km2 Population density 129.5 per km2 335.8 per km2 Official languages Danish Japanese GDP (billion) €260.74 bill (est’15) 3,697.82 (est’15) GDP per capita €46,715 (est’15) €29,315 (est’15) GDP growth 1.6% (est’15) 0.6% (est’15) Unemployment 4.7% (est’15) 3.3% (est’15) Imports (billion) €75.12 (est’15) €560.45 (est’15) Exports (billion) €84.32 (est’15) €559.03 (est’15) SIMILAR BUT DIFFERENT, SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA 2015
  12. 12. Denmark [52, 53] Japan [52, 53] National institutional framework and governance Centralised model. National, regional and local government level. Consists of 5 regions and 98 municipalities. Centralised model. National, regional and local government level. Complex system of 47 prefecturas, multiple sub-prefectures and districts, 1719 municipalites of four “Kanje” types incl. cities, towns, wards, non-municipalities. Decentralisation of government authority Large degree of local autonomy and decision making incl. tax and budget spending. C.70-80% of citizen services are provided by municipalities. Degree of central control via annual budget negotiations. National government control prefecturas and municipalities incl. tax collection, borrowing. C. 70% of budget is allocated to municipalities. Lack of progress on intergov. Cooperation and decentralisation. Separate tax collection. GENERAL GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
  13. 13. USERS ARE INCREASINGLY ONLINE 2000 2005 2010 2014 Denmark 63,01 / 1,26 100,58 / 24,80 115,67 / 38,44 125,89 / 42,34 Japan 53,12 / 0,68 75,98 / 18,35 96,81 / 28,04 120,23 / 29,31 2000 2005 2010 2014 Denmark 39,17 82,74 88,72 95,99 Japan 29,99 66,92 78,21 90,58 MOBILE / BROADBAND SUBSCRIPTIONS PER 100 INHABITANTS, 2000-2014 INDIVIDUAL USE OF THE INTERNET, 2000-2014
  14. 14. eService availability Degree of digitisation (i.e. % of service delivery volume online) 2012 2015 Denmark Japan Denmark Japan Denmark Japan eID/eSignature NemID MyNumber 79.1% -- 89.2% *7.9% Digital post Digital Post no -- -- 89.2% -- Tax declaration Yes yes 100% *51.4% 100% *56.5% Register for school yes no #57% -- 96% -- Register for university yes no 80% -- 100% -- Apply for student grant yes No, see debt 100% -- 100% -- Change address yes yes 63% 0.0000021% -- n/a Housing subsidy yes no, but others 77% -- 79% -- Apply for pension yes yes 94% -- 95% -- Report vermin (fix my street) yes some #56% some 73% -- Report theft yes no 41% -- 84% -- 2010 2015 Denmark Japan Denmark Japan Online banking 71% -- 85% *16% Online commerce 68% *55% 79% *62% Interacted with government online 78% -- 88% -- Obtained info. from a gov. website 76% -- 86% -- Submitted a complete form (eService) 51% -- 69% -- INDIVIDUAL USE OF eSERVICES, 2012-2015 INDIVIDUAL USE OF INTERNET CONTENT, 2012-2015
  15. 15. ‘ Danish Regions (5 regions) Management committee of Danish Regions Cabinet committee of coordination Cabinet committee on economic affairs Ministries Ministry of Finance: Agency for Digitisation (regulatory and mandated body) Secretariat for steering committee and STS Local Government Denmark (98 municipalities) Management committee of LGDK Private industry and civic society Industry and civic groups Governmentcabinet Steering committee for the eGovernment strategy Representatives from the Ministry of Finance (chair), key ministries like Economy, Taxation, Justice, Science, Health and Interior, Danish Regions and Local Government Denmark Joint committee for cross government cooperation (STS) Permanent secretaries from the Ministry of Finance (chair), Economy, Taxation,Science, Health and Interior, Managing Directors from the Danish Regions andLocal GovernmentDenmark STONG MANDATE, COORDINATION, CONSENSUS AND FOLLOW-UP. ENTRENCED, TESTED BUT COULD BE STREAMLINED.
  16. 16. WEAK MANDATES, OVERLAPPING ROLES, NATIONAL BUT FRAGMENTED COORDINATION, LIMITED FOLLOW-UP, KEY ACTORS EXCLUDED
  17. 17. CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS
  18. 18. The Danish governance model continue to prove its worth. Current 2016-2020 strategy seems less ambitious with weaker KPIs. Japan have introduced a CIO layer but seem to overlap with the Council and mandate is weak. Key actors still excluded. Increased focus on KPIs and eIDs being rolled out for citizens and businesses. CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS
  19. 19. CONTACT MORTEN MEYERHOFF NIELSEN United Nations University, Operating Unit on Policy-Driven Electronic Governance / Tallinn University of Technology, Ragnar Nurkse School of Innovation and Governance Tel (DK): +45 23 92 22 91 Tel (PT): +351 93 059 70 09 Tel (EE): +372 59 06 07 09 Mail: mortenmeyerhoff@gmail.com Twitter: @mortenmeyerhoff LinkedIN: mortenmeyerhoff

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