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Provision of Online Education Programs


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A 60-minutes presentation at the workshop: Making a success of an international and integrated blended learning degree course. 01.07.2011, University of Oslo

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Provision of Online Education Programs

  1. 1. Provision of Online Education Programs An overview of pedagogical and administrative aspects in online teaching and learning with focus on efficient administration and transparency in cooperative online education Morten Flate Paulsen A 60-minutes presentation at the workshop: Making a success of an international and integrated blended learning degree course 01.07.2011, University of Oslo Slides available at:
  2. 2. About me <ul><li>Thought my first online, distance education course in 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Development and Innovation at NKI Nettstudier </li></ul><ul><li>Professor of Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>President of EDEN </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor of Education from the Pennsylvania State University, working for the American Center for the Study of Distance Education </li></ul><ul><li>Has been Adjunct Professor, at the Athabasca University in Canada and professor associado at Universidade Aberta in Portugal </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>20th anniversary in 2011, 8 in secretariat, 11 in EC </li></ul><ul><li>EDEN members from 400 institutions in 56 countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20th anniversary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 institutional members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 potential members of NAP – Network of Academics and Professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Workshop, Budapest October 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual conference, Dublin June 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Classroom conference Athens October 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual conference Porto 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EU-projects with 168 institutions </li></ul><ul><li>European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning </li></ul>
  4. 4. NKI Nettstudier was established as a correspondence school in 1910 <ul><li>One of Europe’s largest providers of online distance education </li></ul><ul><li>More than 130 000 enrolments in online courses since 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Broad range of subjects from secondary to master level </li></ul><ul><li>About 400 distance education courses online (all in Norwegian) </li></ul><ul><li>About 13 000 online students in about 40 countries </li></ul><ul><li>About 70 % women </li></ul><ul><li>Individual progress plans/individual follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of potential learning partners </li></ul><ul><li>Global student catalogue with 1650 profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Always room for more students </li></ul><ul><li>Exams at local schools and embassies </li></ul>October 2010
  5. 5. Partners Audio Journalism: Berghs School of Communication (Sweeden) Video Journalism: UPDATE – Danish School of Media and Journalism Text Journalism: NKI Distance Education (Norway) Project is funded by Norgesuniversitetet (Norway)
  6. 7. Secondary school courses: Tonje Kvalvik 18 courses completed Vocational courses: Thor Steinsland 24 and Roger Skogberget 27 College courses: Trude Helen Flak 13 and Erma Bratic 14 Celebrating 100 000 online course enrolments in 2008 During the first 20 years, NKI’s online students enrolled in hundred thousand courses and spent many million hours of studying to reach their goals. This was celebrated August 22, 2008 with 5 students as guests of honour.
  7. 8.
  8. 9. There are NKI students who understand Norwegian in about 40 countries Translated by Google from
  9. 10. Presented with permission from I now try to get a diploma showing that I can write. Have worked as a TV journalist … but now the Fibromyalgia pains restrains me so much that I have to work from bed in the future.
  10. 11. Learning Centres Course D Course B Course A Course B Course C Course A Course A No teaching, but support, guidance and cooperation Access to computers and office facilities <ul><ul><li>60 students 12 courses </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. The book’s website: The Theory of Cooperative Freedom is described in my book, which you can download from the Internet. Online Education and Learning Management Systems: Global E-learning in a Scandinavian Perspective Also available at
  12. 13. <ul><li>The most interesting pedagogical challenge in our lifetime is to provide online education that combines individual freedom with meaningful cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>I have struggled with this challenge since I first introduced my Theory of Cooperative Freedom in 1992. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 14. Now… <ul><li>… the web2.0 and PLE services may help the theory suceed… </li></ul><ul><li>The most interesting characteristics of Web 2.0 is the development of social networks that are hugely successful since the users produce, share and refine information of mutual interest and benefit for all the community members . </li></ul>
  14. 15. Some more relevant resources <ul><li>E-viva em Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency in Cooperative Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Freedom and Transparency in Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>Visualizing student profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency for Cooperation </li></ul>
  15. 16. One may say that: <ul><li>Individual learning is conducted alone </li></ul>Collaborative learning depends on groups Cooperative learning takes place in networks
  16. 17. NKI provides cooperative online education
  17. 18. Cooperative learning <ul><li>Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning is based on voluntary participation in a learning community </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning benefits from transparency </li></ul><ul><li>NKI’s Philosophy: We facilitate individual freedom within a learning community in which online students serve as mutual resources without being dependent on each other. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Six Dimensions of Flexibility Challenge: How to provide individual flexibility and a community for learning?
  19. 20. Six Dimensions of Freedom It is difficult to combine individual flexibility and cooperation
  20. 21. Processos Pedagógicos em Elearning Each Study Unit had 4 Week-long Activities <ul><li>Find, study and share materials related to the theme and organizing it together with ideas and thoughts in an annotated bibliography in your blog </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a learning object related to the theme, publish it somewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Write reviews in the forum on one annotated bibliography and one learning object published by colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Take part in a structured discussion on issues related to the theme </li></ul>
  21. 22. Activity 2: Examples of Learning Objects my students published in various web2.0 services!/group.php?gid=206533992596
  22. 23. The unit structure is adopted by the EU-project e-teacher 2.0 | E-teacher 2.0 | | Portuguese partner:
  23. 24. Example of transparency : <ul><li>Cooperative evaluation in the PPEL course </li></ul><ul><li>Peer evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose grades for peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews of annotated bibliographies and learning objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forum discussions and blog posts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some shared their self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose and justify your own grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write personal reflection paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General feedback </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Summary of experiences from Universidade Aberta <ul><li>The students publish their work in blogs (Blogspot, Wordpress etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>They share it in Moodle, Facebook and Diigo </li></ul><ul><li>They make learning objects in Toonlet, Glogster, Slideshare, Youtube, Issuu, Voicetread etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s much work to overview this distributed learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>The “entire world” can see our work and give us feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Many tutors and students may not be comfortable with this extreme openness. </li></ul>
  25. 26. NKI Innovations in Online Education <ul><li>1986: First LMS </li></ul><ul><li>1987: First online distance education course </li></ul><ul><li>1996: First web-based courses </li></ul><ul><li>1998: First online journal for students (Nettskoleavisen) </li></ul><ul><li>2002: First m-learning courses </li></ul><ul><li>2003: Speech synthesis in all courses </li></ul><ul><li>2004: Individual planning system </li></ul><ul><li>2004: Continuous tracking of turn around time </li></ul><ul><li>2006: Learning partner system </li></ul><ul><li>2008: Global student profiles </li></ul><ul><li>2009: Individual progress reports </li></ul>Rosing Competency Award 2003 Baldic Award 2006 Tisip E-learning Award 2007
  26. 27. NKI students have individual progress plans UA students have collective progress plans Copyright Atle Løkken What about blended learning?
  27. 28. NKI introduced the individual planning system in 2004 assignments that are completed assignments that are delayed according to the plan assignments that are planned
  28. 29.
  29. 30. In January 2009 we started to e-mail individual monthly progress reports to all students <ul><li>Includes personal: </li></ul><ul><li>Contact information </li></ul><ul><li>LMS settings </li></ul><ul><li>Progress report </li></ul><ul><li>Planed progress </li></ul>
  30. 31. Lists with information about next submission number and planned submission date makes cooperation easier
  31. 32. Boldic Award 2006 NKI’s Learning Partners <ul><li>Innovative service for voluntary cooperation between students in a large online learning community </li></ul><ul><li>International award for the Baltic and Nordic countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The jury stated that NKI’s Learning Partner Service: &quot;Furthers and develops the Nordic tradition in ODL. The learning partner concept adds a new, innovative dimension of student support to flexible distance education.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Learning partner - opportunities for cooperation in distance learning </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 33. There is an online demo explaining in Norwegian how students may find learning partners <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Make your personal presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Decide who may access it </li></ul><ul><li>Search for potential learning partners </li></ul><ul><li>Invite somebody to become your learning partner </li></ul>
  33. 34. Presentations May 2009 <ul><li>All 10102 users of NKI’s LMS have personal presentations which automatically list relevant information about them and their courses as shown below. </li></ul>5299 of them have added some personal information, typically a photo and a description of previous education, work experience and personal interests as shown below.
  34. 35. Presentations May 2009 <ul><li>All 10102 users of NKI’s LMS have personal presentations which automatically list relevant information about them and their courses as shown below. </li></ul>5299 of them have added some personal information, typically a photo and a description of previous education, work experience and personal interests as shown below.
  35. 36. How to manage 28 self-paced courses, three kids and a job in the North Sea Thor Steinsland presented his experiences at the EDEN Research Workshop in Paris, October 2008
  36. 37. Translated by Google from I was accepted as a psychology student at the university, but had no interpreter, so I chose to study online to combine family life and education. I need a sign language interpreter to follow traditional lectures, since I am deaf. So it is ideal with NKI, since I do not need an interpreter.
  37. 38. Transparency or privacy ?
  38. 39.
  39. 40. Transparency promotes cooperation Dalsgaard, C. and Paulsen, M.F. (2009) Transparency in Cooperative Online Education. IRRODL, Vol 10, No 3.
  40. 41. Transparency improves quality … in evaluation…
  41. 42. Risks!!! <ul><li>Inappropriate content </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright issues </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism from dissatisfied students </li></ul><ul><li>Students who expose too much personal information </li></ul><ul><li>NKI handles these issues by asking readers to report inappropriate content to an e-mail address. </li></ul><ul><li>So far, we have not received any reports or complaints . </li></ul>
  42. 43. Three degrees of transparency <ul><li>Low: Private e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Medium: Class forum </li></ul><ul><li>High: Global web2.0 services </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning communities must balance transparency and privacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be able to influence their privacy level </li></ul><ul><li>Which transparency level do you choose for evaluation? </li></ul><ul><li>Which transparency level do you choose for evaluation statistics and summaries? </li></ul>
  43. 44. Assessment could be transparent and cooperative <ul><li>Computer-based assessment : If students have access to statistics and information derived from other students taking the same test </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assessment : If students may access statistics or information from other students who have completed the self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Peer assessment : If students are encouraged to voluntary assess each other’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher assessment : If students have access to some of the information the tutor provides or derives from assessing other students </li></ul>
  44. 45. Could exams be cooperative? <ul><li>What if: </li></ul><ul><li>all resources were allowed? </li></ul><ul><li>networking was allowed? </li></ul><ul><li>students could decide where to take exams? </li></ul><ul><li>students could decide when to take exams? </li></ul><ul><li>exam assignments, papers, grades and statistics were more transparent? </li></ul>
  45. 46. Cooperative Gating (COG) <ul><li>Students must meet a condition to access a cooperative resource. Here is an example using In Text Question (ITQ): </li></ul>After attending Morten Flate Paulsen’s presentation, I perceive that Gating means conditional access to cooperative resources. Paulsen elaborates on this in the article Cooperative Freedom on page 45 in his book Online Education and Learning Management Systems . Submit your answer When you have answered the question above and pressed the submit button, you will have access to answers submitted by other students. How would you explain gating?
  46. 47. Rank 1: Kari Iversen : Gate er engelsk og betyr port. Tanken er at porten i utgangspunktet er lukket slik at man ikke får tilgang til en ønsket tjeneste før man har gjort seg fortjent til det. Assess this answer Rank 2: Ole Olsen : Gating kan stimulere studenter til å bidra med nyttig informasjon fordi de selv ønsker å få tilgang til informasjon fra andre. Assess this answer Rank 3: Ola Nordmann : Etter å ha hørt Morten Flate Paulsens foredrag oppfatter jeg det slik at Gating betyr betinget tilgang til kooperative ressurser. Paulsen skriver for øvrig mer om dette i artikkelen Cooperative Freedom på side 45 i boken Online Education and Learning Management Systems. Assess this answer Readers may like or dislike the answers:
  47. 48. Teacher cooperation and evaluation <ul><li>Courses thought are automatically listed </li></ul><ul><li>Many teachers provide advice to students in their presentations </li></ul><ul><li>The advice is valuable also for prospective students </li></ul>Google translation of
  48. 49.
  49. 50. Continuous tracking of response time <ul><li>Introduced in May 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in much discussion in the teachers’ online forum </li></ul><ul><li>A few teachers voiced strong criticism, doubts and reservations </li></ul>The average response time for all 150 teachers in 2010 was 1.77 days . In 2008 NKI introduced an automatic e-mail reminder to the tutors who had one ore more assignments waiting for 7 days or more.
  50. 51. Quality goal: XX % of students positive or neutral My results last quarter/year: 93/84 % Average teacher results last quarter/year: YY/ZZ % Frequent, anonymous evaluation by students Automatic e-mail reminder if quality is under threshold value Quality Barometer 22
  51. 52. Thank you I care, so I share:
  52. 53. 90-minutes Group Assignment Discuss how to obtain a good balance between transparency and privacy in an online learning environment Who should decide transparency level? Elements in an online learning environment Private e-mail Class conferences Global Web2.0 services System information Teacher performence Learning activities Evaluations, tests, exams Grades, statistical results Etc, etc
  53. 54.