Gestalt Theory

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  • it started with these three men - beginning 20th century
  • it started with these three men - beginning 20th century
  • it started with these three men - beginning 20th century
  • White stripes?
  • Black stripes?
  • we identify two lines in continuation.. like this
  • we identify two lines in continuation.. like this
  • and not two lines like this
  • though these are just two circles over eachother we see a ‘moon’
  • though these are just two traingles we see a ‘fast forward’
  • though these are just two circles and a rectangle we see a ‘sign for forbidden’
  • Gestalt Theory

    1. 1. Gestalt Theory
    2. 2. The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way a thing has been ‘gestellt’; i.e ‘placed’ or ‘put together’. / There is no exact equivalent in English for Gestalt. ‘Form’ is the usual translation.
    3. 3. Wolfgang KohlerMax WertheimerKurt Koffka Why do we see some things as figure and other things as background?
    4. 4. Wolfgang KohlerMax WertheimerKurt Koffka How is it possible that we can distinguish a shape?
    5. 5. Wolfgang KohlerMax WertheimerKurt Koffka What is a ‘good’ shape?
    6. 6. They defined the principles - psycho physiological mechanisms - of the perception in: (independent of culture, sociological and environmental influences) Gestalt Theory
    7. 7. 9 Laws of Gestalt Nothing is fully comprehensible out of context. The essential point of gestalt is that in perception the whole is different than the sum of its parts.
    8. 8. Law 1 The law of the relation figure / ground
    9. 9. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
    10. 10. Law 1 The law of the relation figure / ground: Figure refers to an active positive form revealed against a passive, negative ground. The figure can only be identified because of its background and the background only because of its figure.
    11. 11. Law 2 The law of symmetry
    12. 12. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. Regions bound by symmetrical borders tend to be perceived as coherent figures.
    13. 13. Law 2 The law of symmetry: Regions bound by symmetrical borders tend to be perceived as coherent figures. Symmetric stimuli are grouped together.
    14. 14. Law 3 The law of proximity
    15. 15. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. Regions bound by symmetrical borders tend to be perceived as coherent figures.
    16. 16. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. Above there appear to be 3 vertical lines. While right, there appear to be 3 horizontal lines.
    17. 17. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. Two groups of shapes.
    18. 18. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. One group of shapes.
    19. 19. Law 3 The law of proximity: Elements that are close together will be perceived as a coherent object.
    20. 20. Law 4 The law of similarity
    21. 21. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
    22. 22. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. There seems to be a triangle in the square.
    23. 23. It seems to be two white columns alternate with two black ones.
    24. 24. Law 4 The law of similarity: Elements that look similar will be perceived as part of the same form.
    25. 25. Law 5 The law of good continuation
    26. 26. We tend to identify two lines in continuation like this...
    27. 27. ..and not like this.
    28. 28. Law 5 The law of good continuation: Whenever elements of a pattern establish an implied direction, people tend to draw a good continuous line.
    29. 29. Law 6 The law of closure
    30. 30. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
    31. 31. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. We tend to enclose a space by completing a contour and ignore the gaps
    32. 32. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
    33. 33. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. We tend to see a circle and a square, and to ignore the gaps.
    34. 34. Law 6 The law of closure: In our perception a space is enclosed by completing a contour and ignoring gaps in the figure.
    35. 35. Law 7 The law of Prägnanz* *Prägnanz = Good figure
    36. 36. We tend to see a triangle and a square combined,
    37. 37. and not three shapes like these.
    38. 38. Law 7 The law of Prägnanz*: A stimulus will be organized into a ‘good figure’ as possible. Figures are seen as their simple elements instead of complicated shapes. *Prägnanz = Good figure
    39. 39. Law 8 The law of common fate
    40. 40. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
    41. 41. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
    42. 42. Law 8 The law of common fate: Objects with a common movement, that move in the same direction, at the same pace, at the same time are organized as a group.
    43. 43. Law 9 The law of past experience
    44. 44. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
    45. 45. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage. 180180 180180
    46. 46. This figure appears as a square inside a circle or as a donut with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful ‘surprise’ in the viewers’s eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
    47. 47. Law 9 The law of past experience: Similarity with an object or a symbol that can be behavioral or perceptual, a response based on the viewers previous experiences. This law is the basis for symbolism.
    48. 48. Gestalt Laws The law of the relation figure / ground The law of symmetry The law of proximity The law of similarity The law of good continuation The law of closure The law of prägnanz The law of common fate The law of past experience

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