By Rebecca Pang Period 6
Basic principals of Genetics <ul><li>Sometimes traits are controlled by dominant and recessive alleles. When a dominant al...
 
Goals   <ul><li>The project started in October 1990. It ended in 2003. It was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. De...
Ethical, Legal and Social Implications <ul><li>The implications of the Human Genome Project in regards to ethical, legal a...
Laws <ul><li>The human genome project enforced the current law GINA(Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008) for...
 
Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Single gene disorder  - caused by changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of one gen...
Genetic Counseling <ul><li>Genetic counseling can help parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children.  </l...
Karyotypes and Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Karyotypes can be used to predict genetic disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal hum...
Scientific advancements in cloning <ul><li>There were no major advances in cloning until 1951.In November a team of scient...
Related controversial issues to cloning and genetic engineering <ul><li>People that shop at Reuters are worried about gene...
Graph Poll taken on www. squidoo.com/cloning “ Jurassic Park for Real? - Cloning Extinct Animals”
Creating a clone of an endangered animal <ul><li>To create the gaur, scientists took a skin cell from a dead gaur and fuse...
 
Pro 1 <ul><li>If you clone endangered animals you could help reverse the trouble people have caused. For example, people h...
Pro 2 <ul><li>The cloned species could be genetically engineered to have undesirable features eliminated. For example you ...
Pro 3 <ul><li>If people cloned endangered animals then they would no longer be endangered. If people cloned extinct animal...
Pro 4 <ul><li>If people cloned endangered and or extinct animals then scientists could also study them and people could en...
 
Con 1 <ul><li>The one way to clone an endangered animals is to inject the extinct or endangered species cells into another...
Con 2 <ul><li>There are many failures. There are many reasons for these failures. Sometimes the embryos don’t grow. Many c...
Con 3 <ul><li>By having the ability to clone endangered species. People may ignore good conservation techniques and/or pol...
Con 4 <ul><li>Another con is that some animals became extinct for a reason. It might be nice to have them back but they co...
<ul><li>I am kind of in the middle. Things disappear because of human interference and they stick around for certain reaso...
Works Cited <ul><li>U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Human Ge...
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Tis endangered and or extinct species cloning

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Tis endangered and or extinct species cloning

  1. 1. By Rebecca Pang Period 6
  2. 2. Basic principals of Genetics <ul><li>Sometimes traits are controlled by dominant and recessive alleles. When a dominant allele is present with a recessive allele it masks the recessive allele. When there are 2 dominant alleles the dominant allele shows. When there are 2 recessive alleles the recessive allele shows. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes traits are controlled with co-dominant alleles. When this happens both alleles show in the offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>The alleles of two parents combined to express traits in offspring happens when there are co-dominant alleles. </li></ul>B B b Bb Bb b Bb Bb
  3. 4. Goals <ul><li>The project started in October 1990. It ended in 2003. It was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. Scientists goals in the beginning were to identify all the genes in human DNA(approximately 20,000-25,000), determine the sequences of chemical base pairs that make up human DNA(3 billion), store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise from the project. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Ethical, Legal and Social Implications <ul><li>The implications of the Human Genome Project in regards to ethical, legal and social implications. One ethical implication is fairness in the use of genetic information by insurers, employers, courts, schools, adoption agencies, and the military, among others. One legal implication is privacy and confidentially of genetic information. One social implication is Psychological impact and stigmatization due to an individual's genetic differences. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Laws <ul><li>The human genome project enforced the current law GINA(Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008) for privacy issues. GINA is a law which prohibits health insurers and employers from canceling or denying coverage or hiking premiums based on one's genetic risk of developing a certain disease. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Single gene disorder - caused by changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of one gene. Some examples are cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome abnormalities -an abnormality of chromosome number or structure. An example is Down Syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Multifactorial disorders - caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. Examples include heart disease, high blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, diabetes, cancer, and obesity </li></ul>
  7. 9. Genetic Counseling <ul><li>Genetic counseling can help parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic counseling can help parents see their chances of having a child with a genetic disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>To figure this out information genetic counselors use karyotypes, pedigree charts and Punnett squares. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic counseling is a health service, which is provided to people who may pass on (to their children) a hereditary illness. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Karyotypes and Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Karyotypes can be used to predict genetic disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal humans have karyotypes with 46 chromosomes; 23 pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Deletions or deformities of a chromosomes can cause genetic disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Deletions are when part of a chromosome breaks off, resulting in a chromosome without the entire DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Deformities of a chromosome is when the chromosome isn’t put together the right way, and that also can result in a genetic disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>If you can see your karyotype, you see if you have a problem with a chromosome. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Scientific advancements in cloning <ul><li>There were no major advances in cloning until 1951.In November a team of scientists in Philadelphia cloned a frog embryo.  They did not break off a cell from an embryo.  They took the nucleus out of a frog embryo cell and used it to replace the nucleus of an unfertilized frog egg cell.  Once the egg cell detected that it had a full set of chromosomes, it began to divide and grow.  This method is called nuclear transplant. This was the first time that this process was ever used, and its what people use today, although it has slightly changed. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Related controversial issues to cloning and genetic engineering <ul><li>People that shop at Reuters are worried about genetically engineered or cloned food. Companies say that nanofoods could be more flavorful and healthier than regular food. Supermarkets are still discreetly stocking more nanofood. Customers want manufacturers to label such products. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether cloning people is ethical or not </li></ul>
  11. 13. Graph Poll taken on www. squidoo.com/cloning “ Jurassic Park for Real? - Cloning Extinct Animals”
  12. 14. Creating a clone of an endangered animal <ul><li>To create the gaur, scientists took a skin cell from a dead gaur and fused it with a cow's egg from which the chromosomes had been removed. The DNA of the gaur seized the egg, which grew into a gaur embryo. The embryo was implanted into the womb of a cow serving as a substitute mother. The baby should be an exact genetic copy of the gaur from which the cells were obtained. That’s how you can engineer a clone of an endangered animal. </li></ul>
  13. 16. Pro 1 <ul><li>If you clone endangered animals you could help reverse the trouble people have caused. For example, people have killed many African Elephants for their meat and ivory. So if we cloned elephants we might reverse the trouble people have caused from killing so many. Robert P. Lanza, vice-president for medical and scientific development at Advanced Cell Technology, said cloning would help reverse damage to wildlife habitat done by people. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Pro 2 <ul><li>The cloned species could be genetically engineered to have undesirable features eliminated. For example you could make a copy of a Woolly Mammoth that one tusk wasn’t enormously longer than the other. </li></ul>
  15. 18. Pro 3 <ul><li>If people cloned endangered animals then they would no longer be endangered. If people cloned extinct animals then the would no longer be extinct. For example if people cloned the cheetah then it would not be endangered anymore. Also if people cloned a dinosaur then it would not be extinct anymore. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Pro 4 <ul><li>If people cloned endangered and or extinct animals then scientists could also study them and people could enjoy them. For example if people cloned the Woolly Mammoth then people could see it in the zoo and scientists could study how they live what the eat and much more. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Con 1 <ul><li>The one way to clone an endangered animals is to inject the extinct or endangered species cells into another closely related animal and that animal will have a baby of the extinct or endangered animal. But it is still not known if an animal raised by a different species will be able to thrive in the wild. So they might die out again. &quot;It's more like an amusement park version of the species rather than the wild species,&quot; said Kent Redford, director of biodiversity analysis and co-ordination at the Wildlife Conservation Society in New York. </li></ul>
  18. 22. Con 2 <ul><li>There are many failures. There are many reasons for these failures. Sometimes the embryos don’t grow. Many clones are born with abnormalities. Cloning is not reliable. For example when they made a clone of Dolly the sheep she ended up having arthritis. </li></ul>
  19. 23. Con 3 <ul><li>By having the ability to clone endangered species. People may ignore good conservation techniques and/or policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Now most people want to protect the environment. If we could clone endangered species they wouldn’t be as carful because if they killed a whole species you could just clone the species and everything would be fine. </li></ul>
  20. 24. Con 4 <ul><li>Another con is that some animals became extinct for a reason. It might be nice to have them back but they could wipe out man kind(probably not but its possible!) </li></ul><ul><li>If we cloned extinct animals they might not be able to survive in our modern world because they lived so long ago and now there's pollution and global warming. </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>I am kind of in the middle. Things disappear because of human interference and they stick around for certain reasons. We should try to prevent this from happening rather than cloning to fix it. Life isn't about being perfect; we don't need to clone people. People are created to be unique and to survive in different habitats. Nature made us who we are, and I do not think it will end well if we go against nature. However, I think that if we use cloning in moderation, to clone food items to helps the populations survive and to save endangered species, etc, that would be alright. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Works Cited <ul><li>U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Human Genome Program. &quot;Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory . 16 Sept. 2008. Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>. </li></ul><ul><li>Freehling, William W. &quot;Resurrection Science.&quot;  Opinion - Opinionator - NYTimes.com . 28 Nov. 2008. Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com>. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, National T. &quot;Endangered Species Cloning.&quot; Elements Online Environmental Magazine / Éléments Revue écologique En Direct . 13 Nov. 2000. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.elements.nb.ca/theme/endangeredspecies/cheetah/mediaarticle.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Cronkite, Donald P. Prentice Hall Science Explorer Cells and Heredity. Needham: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2002. Print </li></ul><ul><li>Katz, Josh P. &quot;Surge in Food Nanotechnology Worries Consumers.&quot;  FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources . 4 Aug. 2008. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. <http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/science/July-August/Surge-in-Food-Nanotechnology-Worries-Consumers.html>. </li></ul>

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