Genetic Engineering for Cure


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Anthony T
Genetic Engineering for Cure
Period 8
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Genetic Engineering for Cure

  1. 1. Genetic Engineering Anthony Tagliaferri Period 8
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><ul><li>In order for the dominant allele to be shown the gene can be a pair of 2 dominant alleles or 1 dominant and 1 recessive. In order for a recessive allele to be shown it has to be a pair of 2 recessive alleles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an offspring’s alleles for a trait are combined they can form an “in between”, ex. a flower with the alleles for color are red and white and the plant possibly turns out to be pink. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both of the parent’s alleles are combined to make a offspring’s pair of alleles. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Human Genome Project <ul><ul><li>The project started in 1990 and the primary goal was to identify all genes in human DNA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal, ethical and legal implications are intertwined with each other. Would society benefit with the ability to alter genes to rid or cure people of diseases? Would only the rich benefit from this treatment? Would it be fair for genetic information to be used by insurance companies, schools, employers, etc? Would it be right for parents to make “designer” babies or to even clone themselves? What about food/plant companies that genetically engineer the food we eat—is it safe? Who owns and profits from the genetic information available. What are the long-term risks or benefits of a genetically engineered society? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because whenever new science is introduced there may be new laws written due to social and ethical considerations. President Bush signed into law the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), which protects Americans against discrimination based on their genetic information from health insurance and employment. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. DNA Strand
  5. 5. Genetic Disorder <ul><ul><ul><li>Three different types of genetic disorder: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single-gene Disorders: Also known as Mendelian or monogenic disorders, these occur when the changes or mutations occur in only a single gene. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multifactorial Genetic Disorders: Also known as polygenic, these disorders occur as a result of mutations in multiple genes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomal Disorders: These diseases occur as a result of abnormalities in the chromosomal structure such as missing or presence of extra copies of chromosomes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic counseling can help prospective parents identify inherited genetic disorders. By giving parents this information and the actual odds of their children inheriting the disorder, they can help the parents make an informed decision about the pedigree of future children. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karyotypes are used to predict genetic disorders. Scientists can predict genetic disorders by studying whether the cells contain too much or too little genetic information. They look for extra or missing chromosomes in a karyotype. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Argument 1: Parkinson’s Disease <ul><li>Parkinson’s (PD)- progressive movement disorder resulting from the degeneration of neurons in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 people in the U.S. have PD and approximately 50,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. </li></ul><ul><li>A test is now available to detect mutations in PD-linked genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapy improves motor scores in PD patients. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a study doctors infused into patients brains a gene for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that modulates GABA production. The scientists were able to successfully target the defective neurons and ultimately improved the Parkinson's condition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This proves genetic engineering has improved PD and further funding and research can hopefully cure the disease. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Argument 2: Breast Cancer <ul><ul><li>Breast Cancer is the most common cancer affecting women. In the U.S. an estimated 192,370 new cases of breast cancer occurred in women in 2009 and 1,910 occurred in men (See next page for graph). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk factors for breast cancer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history (hereditary), maternal age of first childbearing, number of children, age of menopause. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>brca 1 and brca 2 are identified as the breast cancer gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic tests are available to screen for mutations of the brca 1 and brca 2 gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Current treatment for breast cancer is surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it were not for genetic engineering, we would not be able to identify the specific genes that give rise to this disease and, hopefully, cure the disease. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Number of Breast Cancer Cases
  9. 9. Argument 3: Diabetes Mellitus <ul><li>25.8 million children and adults in the U.S. have diabetes (8.3% of population). </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes is characterized by abnormal high levels of glucose in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of diabetes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 1- juvenile, diagnosed in childhood; autoimmune disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2- diagnosed in adulthood, insulin deficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestational-diagnosed in pregnancy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors that cause diabetes are to inherit a predisposition to the disease (heredity), and also something in your environment triggers the disease. Obesity is a major contributing factor for type 2 diabetes and is occurring more frequently in younger people. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have identified several genes associated with diabetes and have developed a genetic risk score to identify high risk diabetics. Scientists also work with genes to better develop both insulin and oral medications to target the cells more efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>We must continue to fund this research to reduce, and hopefully someday cure this debilitating disease which affects so many people. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Conclusion In conclusion, genetic engineering has proven to benefit people who have Parkinson’s Disease, Diabetes and Breast Cancer among many other diseases. Federal funding should make this information to better treat people available to all, regardless of their ability to pay. I do not think it fair for companies to use this personal information against their employees, I believe it is confidential and should only by used by the person and his/her own doctor. I am in favor of federal funding to continue research into expanding the knowledge with the hope of someday in the near future to eradicate these diseases to help all mankind .
  11. 12. Works Cited <ul><li>Learn.Genetics™ . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li> . 17 Mar. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Beals, Jacquelyn K. &quot;Gene Therapy Improves Motor Scores in Parkinson's Patients.” </li></ul><ul><li>Swart, Rachel. &quot;Breast Cancer.” http://wwwncbi.nlm.nihgov/books/NBK1671/ </li></ul><ul><li>Beals, Jacquelyn K. “Genetic Risk Score Slightly Helps Predict Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.” </li></ul>