Science project emma&audrey[1]


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  • Science project emma&audrey[1]

    1. 1. Organ Cloaning Emma Noonan and Audrey Quinn Period 6
    2. 2. Human Genome Project- When did the project start and how did scientists hope to use this information (what were the goals in the beginning)? The human genome project started in 1990 and ended in 2003, two years before scheduled. The initial goals of the human genome project were to understand the genetic makeup of humans, and to study the ethical, legal and social implications. The project also looked at other organisms such as the fruit fly and the mouse. Another goal was to examine and look at 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA. Finally they wanted to improve tools that are used to analyze data.
    3. 3. Human Genome Project- What are the implications of the Human Genome Project in regards to Ethical, legal and Social implications? <ul><li>Some people think that the human genome project is the ethical thing to do because it will advance medical science. Others disagree because they are afraid of the problems that the outcome of this project could create. </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Genome Project also presents legal issues. One of these issues might be how a person’s right to privacy might be affected and protected in light of the information discovered. The government needs to make laws to prevent this. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, there is also social implications in The Human Genome Project. People should not be discriminated against in terms of getting insurance, employment or anything along those lines because of there traits. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><li>When the dominant allele is present, the recessive allele is covered up. So when there is a dominant allele and a recessive allele then the dominant allele is going to show up for the trait. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-dominance is when a trait is not dominant or recessive. An example of co-dominance is when there is a mouse with black fur and a mouse with white fur. Their offspring with not be white or black, but gray. </li></ul><ul><li>Using punnett squares ,you can find out the probability of your offspring’s genotypes. It is likely for the dominant allele to show up, but when there are two recessive alleles, then the offspring has a chance of having that recessive trait. For example, if it is for the trait of blue eyes, and blue is dominant the off spring could have blue eyes if they have the genotype of BB or Bb. If they get green eyes, the recessive trait then there genotype would be bb. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Example of Punnett squares . Parent 1 Parent 2 BB Bb BB BB Bb Bb Phenotypes: Blue eyes-100% Green eyes 0% Genotypes: BB-50% Bb-50% Bb-0%
    6. 6. Genetic Disorder Single gene disorder is a genetic condition that is caused by the defect of a specific gene in the affects a person ’ s DNA. Single gene disorders are often inherited. Some examples of single gene disorders are cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, myotonic dystrophy, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, Fragile X syndrome and spinal muscular atrophy. Much like single gene disorders chromosome abnormalities it deals with the mutation of DNA. Chromosome abnormalities can be arranged into two basic categories, numerical abnormalities which is when a person does not have a matching chromosome to a pair or has more than two chromosomes. The other group is structural abnormalities which is when the chromosomes structure is changed. Multifactorial disorders is a problem in which it is likely related with the effects of many genes in association with lifestyle and environmental factors. How can genetic counseling help perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children? It can help you determine the potential risk of having a child with an inherited disorder. How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders? Karyotypes are used to predict genetic disorders by looking at the structure of your chromosomes.
    7. 7. Argument 1- Pro One reason why we are pro for this topic is because if you use your own organ, then your body will not reject that organ. “Some people die even with anti-rejection drugs like Cyclosporine. So what’s the solution? There is one potential remedy that seems to make the most sense despite its potential for extreme controversy and that is cloning.” Explained Bob Aronson. He also says that cloning your own organs would save the patient, the insurance company, and the government more money because they would not have to pay for the anti-resistant drugs.  Organ cloning involves growing replacement organs such as a heart, liver, pancreas, or skin from a sample of a persons DNA. This will benefit people who have heart or kidney failure to be able to get a new organ without it being rejected or having to take medication.
    8. 8. How much money organ cloning costs.
    9. 9. Argument 2- Pro Another reason why organ cloning is good is that you do not have to wait until an organ is available. You will just go into surgery as quickly as possible, and you will get a clone of your own, and you will not have to worry about how long it takes to find an available organ. “The patient would not have to wait until an unrelated donor dies to obtain a transplant. A new organ could be grown for them as needed. Also, the procedure would save lives which would otherwise be lost waiting for a transplant that did not come in time,“ says B. A. Robinson, along with the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance group.
    10. 10. Argument 3-Pro A good thing about organ cloning is that there is no surgery required for most organs that are needed. It is duplicated inside the body, and there is no need for the pain, inconvenience of surgery, and other bad things about donating and receiving organs. (Explained by B.A. Robinson).
    11. 11. Argument 4-Pro <ul><li>“ The patient would not have to make-do with a replacement organ that is old and may have reduced functionality; a brand-new organ would be grown specifically for them.” Explained B.A. Robinson. He says that you will not have to adjust to someone else’s organ, you will have one with your own DNA that fits your own needs. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Steps of Cloning in sheep
    13. 13. Conclusion We think that the government should fund money for research on Organ Cloning. If they give money to research organ cloning, many lives can be saved because the organ that they are getting may be life- changing. It would be very helpful if the government would fund money for research so we could learn more about how to advance organ cloning, and also because it could save many lives.
    14. 14. Works Cited &quot;About the Human Genome Project.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <>. &quot;Human Genome Project: a New Reality.&quot; The Human Genome Project . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <>. Robinson, B. A. &quot;Therapeutic Cloning - How It Is Done; Possible Benefits.&quot; by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance . 17 Aug. 2000. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <>. Aronson, Bob. &quot;Cloned Organs In the Near Future. No Rejection, No Drugs.&quot; Transplant Groups . 1 Oct. 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>. Robinson, B. A. &quot;Therapeutic Cloning - How It Is Done; Possible Benefits.&quot; by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance . 17 Aug. 2000. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.
    15. 15. Work Cited (continued) <ul><li>  &quot;Genetic Disorder.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Single Gene Disorders.&quot; Reproductive Genetics Institute: PGD Experts . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; | Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet.&quot; | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>. </li></ul>