Basic Principles of alleles. Every trait has one or Traits are controlled by dominant and recessive Geneticsmore dominant characteristics, that show up in the phenotype of most people. Forexample: eye color. Let’s say that your mom has brown eyes (B=brown) and yourdad has blue eyes (b=blue), you will have brown eyes, because brown is thedominant of the two colors. Capital B is dominant over lowercase b. If there is adominant allele in the presence of a recessive allele, the dominant allele will maskthe recessive allele and the dominant allele will be your phenotype. Every parent hastwo alleles for a trait. The only way you can have a recessive trait is if one of yourparents is homozygous for the trait, and the other is heterozygous, or both yourparents are heterozygous or homozygous for the recessive trait. There is such thingas co-dominance. This is when a trait has two dominant alleles that are different.Because both of the alleles are dominant, both of the traits show up in that specificcharacteristic. When an offspring is born they have some of their parents’characteristics because the parents’ alleles are passed on. This is because when thesperm and the egg join during reproduction each of these sex cells has half of thechromosomes from each of the parents. They combine to make a full set ofchromosomes when conception happens (when the egg and sperm meet). Eachparent donates one of their alleles per trait to make the total two.
Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project started in 1990. The project was thought to last 15 years, but theycompleted it (The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health) ahead of schedule by twoyears and finished it in 2003. Their goals were: to identify all the (approximately) 20,000-25,000 genes in ahumans DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, storethe information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the privatesector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise from the project. Social Issues: A big one is privacy and confidential genetic information - who owns it? Fairness in theuse of genetic information by insurers, employers, courts, school, adoption agencies and the military isanother one - who can use your genetic information? How would your genetic information affect you and howpeople look and think about you differently? What I think is one of the most important issues is would knowingyour genetic information have you thinking second thoughts about having a child? Ethical Issues: Should we ever use genetic engineering to enhance a body’s physical and mentalattributes if the technology ever came available to us? Also if we classify some kind of genetic code as“normal” or the “baseline” of human genetics, will there be a genetic underclass? Where is the line betweengenetic enhancement and medical care through genetic tweaking? Legal Issues: What if people start using genetic codes to advertise products and expose trade secrets? How would your genetic information affect your healthcare? The Human Genome project changed laws such as GINA (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008) because with all this new information about genes and the human genetic code some very serious points come up about the social, ethic and legal issues of human genetics. Some of these had to be resolved by adding or revising a law. Chromosomes
Genetic Disorders There are three different types of genetic disorders. These are single-cell disorders,chromosome abnormalities, and multifactorial disorders. A single celled disorder is the result ofa single mutated gene. A chromosome abnormality is an abnormality in the number or structureof a chromosome (for example people who have Down Syndrome have one extrachromosome). A multifactorial disorder is a disorder caused by the interaction of genetic andsometimes non-genetic and environmental reasons. A single-cell disorder and chromosomeabnormalities are different from multifactorial disorders because multifactorial disorders canhappen because of non-genetic and environmental reasons, while single-cell disorders andchromosome abnormalities usually happen at birth. Chromosome abnormality is to do with thestructure or number of a chromosome. While a single-cell disorder is to do with the cellspecifically (not just the chromosome) and it only affects one cell in the body, not everychromosome in every cell in the body like chromosome abnormalities do. Genetic counseling can help because a genetic counselor identify any genetic problemsthat could arise if they were to conceive a child. They can decide if there will be any problemsthrough genetic testing. They do this by analyzing small samples of blood or tissue and thenusing a punnet square (see Figure 2, slide 11) decide if there could be any problem and if theremight be, what are the chances that your child can have the disorder. Karyotyping is a test that essentially brings up a profile of your chromosome makeup.Then geneticists can see if there are any abnormalities in the order or number of thechromosomes, that can then help identify any disorders.
Argument #1 First of all, organ cloning would be used to save lives. That’s whatit’s meant to do. Scientists take embryonic stem cells that can begrown into virtually any tissue in the human body. They implant ahealthy nucleus, from a cell of the organ they need transplanted, intothe healthy embryonic stem cells, then these stem cells would (intheory) grow into the patient’s own organ that they need replaced. Ifthis technology is perfected (probably in our lifetime) it will savehundreds of thousands of lives that otherwise would have died. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services: - 10,460 people are waiting for an organ. - 18 people will die each day waiting for an organ. - Every 11 minutes another person is added onto the waiting list for organ donations.
Argument #2 For some organs like a kidney, if a family member would donate their kidney to another family member, they would have to go through a (painful) major operation, then the kidney they donated might be rejected by the receiver’s body! All of the donor’s efforts would be for nothing. Though the risk small the operation to take a kidney from one person’s body and give it to the other can have complications. According to the United Network for Organ Sharing website, www.transplantliving.org some of the risks to organ donors, after the transplant, include:• potential for surgical complications including risk of donor death• potential for decreased kidney function in kidney donors. Every kidney donor will experience a decrease in the kidney function compared to pre-donation. The amount will depend upon the potential donor’s age and history.• potential for organ failure and the need for a future organ transplant for the donor• potential for other medical complications including long-term complications currently unforeseen• scars• pain
Argument #3 Therapeutic cloning is also a lot less risky than a donation organ, because donation organs can be rejected by the body. If your exact organ is cloned then there is no way that it can be rejected, because the organ’s cells would not be foreign to your body. No way! I think in the future if one of your organs starts to fail you’ll just get a replacement organ except that it will be your exact organ! If the procedure is perfected it will become and everyday thing of life.Percentage of Patients Dead One Year After Donor Organ Transplant: 6.2% - kidney transplants 9.5% - pancreas transplant 17.6% - heart transplant 23.3% - liver transplant 31.6% - lung transplant 43.0% - heart-lung transplant
Argument #4 Therapeutic cloning involves the use of induced pluripotentstem (iPS) cells, also known as stem cells. These stem cells aremade by reprogramming adult tissue into a versatile embryo-likestate which can grow (if a nucleus of a healthy organ isimplanted) into virtually any tissue of the human body (in theory).This is different than cloning an animal, where they take cellsthat have been growing for a few days then extract the nucleusfrom them and inject whatever animal’s nucleus they wish togrow. Some people refer to the initial extracting of the nucleus asmurder and think that it is immoral and unethical. Withtherapeutic cloning there is no life killed. The organ may not bewhat you were born with but it will be the exact same thing.
Conclusion Organ cloning sounds just like what it describes. It means to make anexact copy of another organ. Therapeutic organ cloning will one day saveand help the lives of countless people curing Diabetes, Parkinson’s Disease,Heart Disease, Alzheimers Disease (see Figure 1, slide 11) and paralysisjust to name a few. The stem cells needed for this procedure can be grown inlabs. This procedure when perfected will save so many lives it is almostimpossible to realize the scope of the magnitude of what can beaccomplished here. The government should definitely pay for the researchthat needs to be done. When we can finally clone organs safely andconsistently, many of the hardships of illness, such as restricted diet, mobility,and lifestyle, will not exist anymore.
Charts/Graphs Figure 1 Figure 2 Number of people that will develop Alzheimers A punnett square. These canDisease in the coming decades. Therapeutic help determine if any of yourorgan cloning can prevent this. offspring can inherit a disease/ disorder that you have a trait for or carry.
Works Cited"About the Human Genome Project." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/ Human_Genome/project/about.shtml>."Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/ sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>."About the Human Genome Project." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/ Human_Genome/project/about.shtml>."Multifactorial Disorder - Definition of Multifactorial Disorder in the Medical Dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia." Medical Dictionary. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ multifactorial disorder>."Genome.gov | Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet." Genome.gov | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.genome.gov/11508982>."Genetic Counseling." KidsHealth - the Webs Most Visited Site about Childrens Health. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://kidshealth.org/ parent/medical/genetic/genetic_counseling.html>."Understanding Karyotyping." Parenting Advice, Information, Parenting Skills for Todays Parents - IndiaParenting.com. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.indiaparenting.com/pregnancy/116_2606/understanding-karyotyping.html>."New Artificial Stem Cells Have Their Own Ethical Issues - Times Online." The Times | UK News, World News and Opinion. Ed. Mark Enderson. 24 July 2009. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/science/article6725335.ece>."Therapeutic Cloning - How It Is Done; Possible Benefits." ReligiousTolerance.org by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.religioustolerance.org/clo_ther.htm>.US Department of Health and Human Services. Welcome to Organdonor.gov | Register Today as an Organ Donor. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.organdonor.gov/default.asp>.“Center-specific graft and patient survival rates” 1997 United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) report. Lin HM, Kauffman HM, McBride MA, Davies DB, Rosendale JD, Smith CM, Edwards EB, Daily OP, Kirklin J, Shield CF, Hunsicker LG. United Network for Organ Sharing, Richmond, VA.United Network for Organ Sharing. "Being a Living Donor - Informed Consent." Transplant Living: Organ Donation and Transplantation Information for Patients. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.transplantliving.org/livingdonation/livingdonor/ informedconsent.aspx>.