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Genome power point presentation (2)


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Dino G, Cloning Extinct Animals, period 3 16 slides

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Genome power point presentation (2)

  1. 1. Cloning of extinct Animals<br />Constantine Gonias Class Period 3<br />
  2. 2. The Basic Principles of Genetics<br /> The factors that control traits are called genes and they are found in pairs. One gene is received from the male and the other from the female. The different forms of genes are called alleles. <br /> For instance, if a dominant allele is present, the recessive allele is hidden or masked. If both alleles have the recessive trait then the recessive trait will appear.<br /> When co-dominance occurs there are no dominant or recessive alleles and both traits appear and neither trait is masked. <br /> When the alleles of two parents combine the traits that are formed are a result of the traits that are received by the offspring of the parents. Some alleles come together on their own (self reproduction), as it occurs with some flowers while others come together naturally by mating.<br />
  3. 3. The Human Genome Project<br />The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project that formally began in 1990 and ended in 2003. It started as a 15 year project but was completed 2 years earlier than planned due to rapid technological advances. A genome is defined as all the DNA in an organism, including its genes. The genes carry the information for making all the proteins required by all organisms. The work of the Human Genome Project has allowed researchers to begin to understand the blueprint for building a person. <br />The project's first 5-year plan, intended to guide research in FYs 1990-1995, was revised in 1993 due to unexpected progress, and the second plan outlined goals through FY 1998. The third and final plan [Science, 23 October 1998] was developed during a series of DOE and NIH workshops. <br /><br />
  4. 4. The Human Genome Project Cont’d<br />This project was coordinated by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy. Additional contributors to the research included universities across the United States and international partners in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan and China. <br />“Knowledge about the effects of DNA variations among individuals can lead to revolutionary new ways to diagnose, treat, and someday prevent the thousands of disorders that affect us. [] <br />" A unique aspect of the U. S. Human Genome Project is that it was the first large scientific undertaking to address potential ELSI implications arising from project data. []<br />
  5. 5. The Human Genome Project Cont’d<br />Project goals for the Human Genome Project<br />Identify all the approximately 20,000 – 25,000 genes in human DNA, <br />Determine their structure and function and determine their involvement in human disease,<br />Determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA,<br />Store this information in databases, <br />Store this information in databases,<br />Improve tools for data analysis,<br />Transfer related technologies to the private sector, and<br />Address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. <br /> []<br />
  6. 6. Implications of the Human Genome Project in regards to Ethical, Legal and Social Implications<br />The mission of the ELSI program was to address issues that were raised by genomic research that would affect individuals, families, and society. <br />“The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) devoted 3% to 5% of their annual Human Genome Project (HGP) budgets toward studying the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) surrounding availability of genetic information. This represents the world’s largest bioethics program, which has become a model for ELSI programs around the world.” []<br />
  7. 7. Implications of the Human Genome Project in regards to Ethical, Legal and Social Implications Cont’d<br />The four main areas that the ELSI program focused on were:<br />Privacy and fairness in the use of genetic information, including the potential for genetic discrimination in employment and insurance.<br />The integration of new genetic technologies, such as genetic testing, into the practice of clinical medicine,<br />Ethical issues surrounding the design and conduct of genetic research with people, including the process of informed consent.<br />The education of healthcare professionals, policy makers, students, and the public about genetics and the complex issues that result from genomic research.<br />[]<br />
  8. 8. The Human Genome Project and Changes to Current Laws as GINA (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008)<br />The passage of the Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act (GINA) by President George W. Bush in 2008, is the first major federal law that resulted from ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) portion of The Human Genome Project. The reason why the genetic researchers and community wanted this law is because they wanted to recruit research subjects and wanted to find ways to provide them assurances that the findings of the genetic research would not be used against them by health insurance companies or employers. <br />The passage of the GINA law sets the standards, a model, for large publically funded science studies to refer to in protecting the research participants. GINA, however, provides narrower protection than existing civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, or even laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex because it applies to health insurance and employment discrimination.” <br />[Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702 print); 1467-8519 (online) Volume 22 Number 7 2008 pp ii-iv.]<br />
  9. 9. Genetic Disorders<br />
  10. 10. What is the role of a Genetic Counselor?<br /> A couple may decide to seek the advice of a genetic counselor becausethey feel that their family members may have an inherited genetic disorder and would like to know if their future children may be at risk in inheriting a genetic disease. <br />In order to help determine whether a condition has a genetic component, the genetics counselor may ask about a person’s medical history and may take a detailed family history of themselves and their extended family. <br />If the genetics professional diagnoses the genetic condition, they will provide further information about the genetic condition and will explain how the condition is inherited and what the chances are of passing the condition to future generations and what the options are for testing and treatment. The genetic counselor is basically there to provide you with information, offer support and address some of the concerns that they may have. <br />
  11. 11. Karyotypying used to Predict Genetic Disorders<br />Karyotypingis the technique used to evaluate the structure of the DNA and look for errors. A karyotype is a picture of a person’s chromosome. The DNA molecule is a molecule made up of smaller groups of molecules called genes. The genes then tell the cells what proteins to produce. The proteins then act on the cell’s functions in telling it how to divide, grow and how to use energy. <br /> A genetic disease occurs when an error occurs in the genes and DNA. Genetic diseases are stored in our chromosomes. Once a karyotype is taken it can help researchers and health care professionals determine if a person has or will develop a genetic disease. A cytogeneticist then examines an rearranges chromosomes and looks for abnormalities such as too few, too many, missing chromosomes and mixed up pieces. <br />
  12. 12. Arguments for the Cloning of Endangered and Extinct Species <br />Since mankind has removed some of the natural habitats for species they need to find a way to preserve the endangered and extinct species. Scientists believe that cloning offers another way of preserving the unique genetic identity of rare species in the body of living animals that could be used for breeding purposes. <br />In order for a clone to be successful the “seed” DNA implanted into the host egg must be intact. If it is damaged the DNA will lack important information needed to make the egg develop into a complete organism. [ –to-life-Using-Cloning] <br />Scientists are working towards a worldwide network of repositories to hold frozen tissue from specimens of endangered species; they hope that this kind of “genetic trust fund can be drawn upon to reconstitute entire populations of a given species. <br /> []<br />
  13. 13. Arguments for the Cloning of Endangered and Extinct Species<br />A number of so-called frozen zoos now store genetic material from endangered species. The zoos are cytogenic facilities in which tissue, eggs, and sperm from threatened species are stored for later cloning or use in reproduction programs using artificial insemination. Two of the main facilities are the Frozen Zoo at the San Diego Zoo and the Audubon Center for Research of Endangered Species. <br />Cloning is also helpful in assisting animals in captivity to reproduce more easily since they cannot breed naturally. “Some endangered animals are so rare and so difficult to breed in captivity that cloning offers a variable alternative route to continuing the genetic line in using surrogate mothers of a non-threatened species.” []<br />
  14. 14. Advanced Cell Technology (ACT)<br />The first successful cloning of an endangered animal to late-stage fetal development has been reported. Advanced Cell Technology’s (ACT) cross –species nuclear transfer to clone the endangered gaur used eggs derived from cows. “These results represent an important milestone”, says Ian Wilmut of Scotland’s Roslin Institute, editor-in-chief of Cloning. “The success of this new methods shows promise for rescuing rare and endangered species and populations, and possibly even extinct animals and birds in cases where a relative is available”. [] <br />Limitations such as restricted physical space for animals, problems with animal husbandry, and general reproductive failure of the animals have created the need for additional propagations programs. Most ethicists who strongly oppose human cloning see no problem in using the technique to rescue endangered species.<br />ACT is collaborating with the SOMA Foundation, a non-profit organization that has been organized to provide funding for collaborations with zoos to preserve endangered species through cloning. []<br />
  15. 15. In conclusion… <br />“Knowledge about the effects of DNA variations among individuals can lead to revolutionary new ways to diagnose, treat, and someday prevent the thousands of disorders that affect us. []<br />The findings of the Human Genome project are enormous and the federal government should continue to fund it. The capabilities and potential of this are endlessand I know that there is even more discoveries to be made. <br />
  16. 16. Citations…..<br />"What Was the Human Genome Project and Why Has It Been Important? - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />"About the Human Genome Project." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />"Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />"What Were Some of the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Addressed by the Human Genome Project? - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br /><br />